Data I/O Corporation (DAIO) - Description of business
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-----------------This Annual Report on Form 10-K and the documents incorporated herein by reference contain forward-looking statements based on current expectations, estimates and projections about Data I/O(R) Corporation's industry, management's beliefs and certain assumptions made by management. See "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations - Forward Looking Statements."GENERALData I/O Corporation ("Data I/O") designs, manufactures, and sells programming systems used by designers and manufacturers of electronic products. Our programming system products are used to program integrated circuits ("ICs" or "devices" or "semiconductors") so that the ICs will function as desired in the customer's electronic product. They are an important tool for the electronics industry experiencing growing use of programmable ICs. Data I/O markets and distributes our programming systems worldwide, and is the global leader in this market. Data I/O incorporated in the State of Washington in 1969.Data I/O Mission. Data I/O's mission is to design and deliver innovative customer-focused programming solutions, which enable customers to manage their firmware supply chain, getting their products to market faster, while reducing costs in their process. We align our products and services to make programming easy, delight our customers and satisfy their whole product needs.Helping Customers Manage their Firmware Supply Chain. Much of the innovation and competitive advantage of today's electronic products comes from the software buried inside the product, which is commonly referred to as "firmware." Companies use firmware to differentiate their products from their competitors' products, constantly writing new code to add features. This allows them to build multiple models with identical hardware and many versions of firmware, all on one production line. Any improvement in production efficiency boosts the profitability of all products on that line. Many original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs") now outsource production to specialists in electronic manufacturing services ("EMS") to maximize the profit impact from highly efficient production. The challenges of managing the firmware supply chain remain, however, and can even increase with this additional interface. Our systems allow our customers - both OEM and EMS companies - to build products with the exact firmware features that consumers specify, virtually real-time with the latest software release. We help our customers eliminate inventory risks, delays, rework, and lost market opportunities while enabling them to better serve their customers.Connected Strategy. There are many providers of device programming tools on the market today. However, experienced design, test and manufacturing engineering teams need a comprehensive approach to process management that will assure the integrity of the product data files from design through manufacturing, assuring that the production line builds the product in the most cost-effective way, precisely as designed. Data I/O solutions provide a consistent device programming methodology from design through prototype and new product introduction and finally in the high volume manufacturing phase. We call this approach the `Connected Strategy'. Data I/O's Connected Strategy leverages network capable products to easily move the customer's intellectual property securely up and down the supply chain.Business Restructuring. During 2005, we took restructuring related charges of $96,000 primarily related to severance and completing actions that had been started in the second half of 2004. This aligned management operations with the changes made in 2004 to control costs in North America and Europe and the need to build staff serving China and Eastern Europe.INDUSTRY BACKGROUNDData I/O enables companies to improve productivity and reduce costs by providing device programming solutions that enable our customers to take intellectual property (design and data files) and program it into memory, microcontroller and logic devices. Companies that design and manufacture electronic products that utilize programmable devices purchase these solutions from us. These companies, our primary customers, design and manufacture a broad range of electronic products for both consumer and industrial use. Data I/O also provides services related to hardware support, system installation and repair, and device programming.According to several industry reports, there continues to be forecasted growth of semiconductors used in consumer electronic products, automotive electronics, and industrial controls which we believe should continue to drive demand for programming equipment and services. Programmable devices continue to be significant and growing segments of the semiconductor industry according to several published industry reports. Flash memory and programmable micro-controllers are typical typesof these devices. Programmable devices offer advantages to the electronic product designer allowing them to bring products to market more quickly and inexpensively than using fixed-function devices, and can offer the advantage of simpler rapid product upgrades. Programmable devices also offer attractive functionality to the user of the electronic product, such as storing personal information or customizing product functionality. As a result, use of programmable devices is growing rapidly in both high-volume consumer electronic products and more complex electronic systems.More than 100 semiconductor manufacturers offer thousands of different programmable devices. The technology trends driving the programmable device market result in a broad range of requirements for programming information into these devices. Programmable memory devices continue to have higher capacity and occupy smaller circuit board space. Programmable microcontroller devices are now more prevalent because semiconductor vendors are standardizing their manufacturing processes. These technology advances require advanced programming equipment like Data I/O manufactures.Our automated programming systems integrate programming and handling functions into one product solution. Quality conscious customers continue to drive this portion of our business, which includes high-volume manufacturing and high-volume programming center customers.PRODUCTSIn order to accommodate the expanding variety and quantities of programmable devices being manufactured today, Data I/O offers multiple solutions for the numerous types of devices used by our customers in the various market segments and applications. We work closely with major manufacturers of programmable devices to develop our products to meet the requirements of a particular device.Data I/O's line of programming systems includes a broad range of products, systems, modules, and accessories, which we group into two general categories: automated programming systems and non-automated programming systems. We provide automated programming systems in two categories: off-line and in-line (including In-system Programming). In addition, we provide device support and service on all of our products. Device support is a critical aspect of our business and consists of writing algorithms for devices and developing socket adapters to hold and connect to the device for programming.Within the categories of automated and non-automated systems, Data I/O targets specific solutions at specific market segments. Data I/O optimizes the solution based on the customer's device, process and business needs. Data I/O's flagship programming platform, FlashCORE(TM), has the speed and pricing to provide the best value in the industry, making it the leading choice for high volume production. Data I/O technical teams work closely with semiconductor manufacturers to actively plan for programming support of new devices and physical packages. The FlashCORE platform is used worldwide to program NOR Flash devices from all providers, including market leaders, Intel, Renesas, Spansion and Toshiba. Data I/O leads the industry in providing solutions for NAND flash programming from Hynix, Micron, Samsung, ST Microelectronics, Toshiba, M Systems DiskOnChip and others. The dynamics of the flash market are changing, blurring the distinction of NAND and NOR technologies and the emergence of converged offerings, including Samsung's OneNAND and Spansion's ORNAND, also supported on FlashCORE systems. Data I/O's strong partnerships with leading semiconductor companies greatly enhance our ability to serve our mutual customers.Target customers include electronic product OEM manufacturers of consumer products, like the fast-growing portable/wireless devices, cellular handsets and smart appliances. These applications are high volume users of programmable flash memory devices.In portable electronics products, shrinking form factors are driving the shrinkage of device packages. Manual programming and handling of these tiny packages is increasingly not practical due to quality issues. This trend toward small packages should drive demand for Data I/O's automated programming systems in 2006.Applications targeted for these tiny devices include automotive, consumer appliances, remote controls, medical devices, portable/personal electronics, PC peripherals, hand-held and wearable PCs, telecommunications including phones and pagers, security alarms and sensors.TaskLink(R) for Windows provides a universal job set-up tool that intuitively guides users in preparing product data files for programming. TaskLink is also a key element of our Connected Strategy. Leveraging network connectivity, Data I/O's TaskLink provides monitoring and control over programming systems anywhere on the network - providing global companies with greater visibility and control over remote production lines or contract manufacturing processes.AUTOMATED PROGRAMMING SYSTEMSData I/O provides our manufacturing and programming center customers with automated programming systems solutions that include robotic handlers, a variety of programmers, input and output media handling (such as tray stackers, tubes, loaders or taping), and marking solutions. Our ProLINE-RoadRunner(TM) is a unique in-line programming system with programming speed capability, which approaches the speed at which Flash devices can currently accept data. Many of our customers need to program Flash and microcontroller devices in large quantities and very quickly. ProLINE-RoadRunner mounts directly on the assembly machine in the production line (Siemens, Fuji, Universal, Panasonic and Assembleon machines) and delivers programmed parts from reels of blank devices to the production line in a just-in-time fashion. Our ProLINE-RoadRunner eliminates production bottlenecks associated with high-density Flash and microcontroller devices, allowing last minute firmware changes and eliminating programmed part inventories, ultimately streamlining and reducing the customer's production and process costs. ProLINE-RoadRunner enables customers to implement lean processes and is a key element in Data I/O's Connected Strategy, allowing customers and partners to more effectively manage their firmware supply chain. ProLINE-RoadRunner currently retails from $72,500 to $118,000, depending on programming capability.Data I/O's PS family of automated programming solutions offers highly flexible solutions for off-line batch programming. Data I/O can configure PS systems to support not only Flash devices, but also a wide variety of other devices, such as microcontrollers. These systems provide a number of marking, labeling, and input/output options. Most importantly, customers can make changeovers extremely fast. This feature allows the customer to rapidly respond to diverse demands with very little downtime. Customers can optimize the PS family systems for any job to maximize throughput and, when combined with fast changeover times and high reliability, provide the highest levels of output during a production shift. Our latest product, the PS588, integrates the same FlashCORE programmer we use in our PS288, PS300 FlashCORE, ProLINE-RoadRunner and FlashPAK(TM) and builds on our Connected Strategy and common architecture. The PS588 significantly improves throughput and lowers the cost per programmed part. The PS family products range in price from $129,500 to $469,000.We introduced the ImageWriter 200, our solution for in-systems programming of programmable microcontrollers serial memory mounted on the printed circuit board, in the fourth quarter of 2004 and introduced the ImageWriter 300 in 2005. This solution is designed to be integrated into the line but does no handling. The primary markets for ImageWriter are microcontroller applications in automotive electronics, industrial automation and consumer electronics. Pricing for the ImageWriter starts at approximately $2,000 for the first unit with most installations requiring multiple units.NON-AUTOMATED PROGRAMMING SYSTEMSOur line of non-automated programming systems provides solutions for both engineering and low to medium-volume manufacturing customers. Non-automated programming systems require a user to physically handle the devices being programmed. These types of programmers are also sometimes referred to as "manual" or "desktop" programmers. We now have three families of non-automated programmers: Sprint, UniSystem and FlashPAK.Engineering customers typically use single-site programming systems during the prototype phase of a new design, and may purchase inexpensive systems for limited device needs or more expensive systems to support more complex devices or a large variety of device types. Single-site programming systems can perform programming on only one programmable device at a time.Data I/O offers a range of high quality, universal single socket manual programming solutions through our UniSystem family of programming systems. Our UniSite and 3980 xpi programming systems offer the highest levels of signal integrity, which ensure the highest programming standards. Popular in military, aerospace, telecommunications and other mission critical applications, the systems range from $15,000 to $35,000.For more cost constrained or higher volume applications, the Sprint family of products offers excellent value for the money and versatility. The Sprint Quad and Octal programming systems offer 4 and 8 socket universal programming configurations for higher volume applications. The Sprint family of products range in price from under $1,000 to $20,000 for the multiple socket solutions.Our newest programmer, the FlashPAK, leverages the high-speed proprietary FlashCORE programming technology in the ProLINE-RoadRunner system. We believe FlashPAK, starting at approximately $7,000, is the world's fastest programming architecture, limited today only by the speed at which Flash devices can accept data. FlashPAK is another key element of Data I/O's connected strategy, providing OEMs and new product introduction facilities with a high performance Flash programming system that can be used to validate designs before moving down the firmware supply chain. For manufacturing applications, the FlashPAK, a high speed, multi-socket, small footprint desktop solution, provides manual programming operations with the highest level of flexibility at the lowest cost per part. Manufacturers that use manual programming because of lower labor costs in areas like Asia find FlashPAK an attractive solution.Data I/O supports and completes our product offering with a full range of software and device update products and worldwide service and repair capability.CUSTOMERSData I/O sells our products to customers worldwide in a broad range of industries, including wireless handset manufacturers and other telecommunication companies, consumer electronics, computers, test and measurement, medical, transportation, military, aerospace, electronic contract manufacturing, programming centers, and semiconductors. Our principal customers include Motorola, Nokia, and Siemens. Our customers either design and/or manufacture electronic products that incorporate programmable devices or provide device programming services. During 2005, we sold products to over 1,600 customers throughout the world. There were no customers that accounted for more than 10% of our 2005 net sales and one customer, Siemens, accounted for 14.5% and 18% of our 2004 and 2003 net sales, respectively.Programmable device consumption continues to grow as more and more electronic product manufacturers take advantage of the flexibility and cost effectiveness of programmable memory, microcontroller and logic devices. Electronic products today utilize programmable technology in one form or another, from microcontrolled home appliance devices to set top boxes and wireless devices, which use increasingly vast amounts of memory for Internet connectivity and new leading edge features. Therefore, our customers come from virtually all industries manufacturing electronic products, and include the consumer electronic products, cell phone, personal data assistants ("PDAs") and other wireless device manufacturers, home entertainment product sectors, aerospace and military applications, the personal computer ("PC") and the PC peripheral industry, automotive electronics and industrial automation and control.Flash memory growth. The Flash memory customer segment is experiencing some of the most impressive growth of all programmable devices. As cell phones, PDAs, games consoles, set top boxes and other consumer devices become more capable, powerful and compact, the demand for Flash units and megabytes continues to grow.Microcontroller growth. As the demand for smarter electronic devices increases, demand for greater numbers of microcontroller devices increases. Many household appliances today contain a microcontroller to control the critical functions of the product and provide new features. Examples of these appliances include toasters, refrigerators, garage door openers and even thermostats. This growth creates new market opportunities for us and we have added support for these devices in our FlashCORE architecture and our ImageWriter product. In addition, the number of microcontrollers in automotive electronic applications is growing rapidly, with some cars having as many as 80 or more microcontrollers that control functions from airbag and ABS systems to air conditioning, information centers and entertainment and communication systems. We are also targeting the automotive segment as a critical and growing target segment for our solutions.GEOGRAPHIC MARKETS AND DISTRIBUTIONData I/O markets and sells our products through a combination of direct sales, internal telesales, and indirect sales representatives and distributors. We continually evaluate our sales channels against our evolving markets and customers.Sales of Data I/O's semiconductor programming equipment products requiring installation by us that is other than perfunctory were previously recorded when installation was complete, or at the later of customer acceptance or installation, if an acceptance clause is specified in the sales terms. After we determined that our programming equipment has reached a point of maturity and stability such that product acceptance can be assured by testing at the factory prior to shipment, and each of the multiple deliverables has an established fair market value pursuant to EITF 00-21, Data I/O began in the third quarter of 2005 recognizing revenue for these products at the time of shipment if all of the other criteria for revenue recognition exist in accordance with SAB 104, Revenue Recognition. Revenue for the undelivered installation service remains deferred at time of shipment and is recognized upon completion of the installation.Revenue for products where installation is considered perfunctory continues to be recognized at the time of shipment. Installation that is considered perfunctory includes any installation that can be performed by other parties, such as distributors, other vendors, or in most cases the customers themselves. We recognize revenue from the sale of service and update contracts as deferred revenue, and we recognize it on a straight-line basis over the contractual period.U.S. SALESWe market our products throughout the U.S. using a variety of sales channels, including our own field sales management personnel, independent sales representatives, and a direct telesales organization. Our U.S. independent sales representatives obtain orders on an agency basis, with shipments made directly to the customer by Data I/O. Net sales in the United States for 2005, 2004, and 2003 were $6,386,000, $5,434,000, and $7,263,000, respectively.FOREIGN SALESForeign sales represented approximately 78%, 80%, and 70%, of net sales of our programming systems in 2005, 2004, and 2003, respectively (see Note 15 of "Notes to Consolidated Financial Statements"). We make foreign sales through our wholly-owned subsidiaries in Germany, China and Canada, as well as through independent distributors and sales representatives located in 35 other countries. Our independent foreign distributors purchase Data I/O products in U.S. Dollars for resale and we recognize the sale at the time of shipment to the distributor. As with U.S. sales representatives, sales made by international sales representatives are on an agency basis with shipments made directly to the customer by us.Net foreign sales for 2005, 2004, and 2003 were $21,935,000, $21,876,000, and $17,424,000, respectively. We determine total foreign sales by the international geographic area into which the products are sold and delivered, and include not only sales by foreign subsidiaries but also export sales from the U.S. to our foreign distributors and to our representatives' customers. Foreign sales do not include transfers between Data I/O and our foreign subsidiaries. Export sales are subject to U.S. Department of Commerce regulations. We have not, however, experienced any difficulties to date as a result of these requirements.Fluctuating exchange rates and other factors beyond our control, such as international monetary stability, tariff and trade policies, and U.S. and foreign tax and economic policies, affect the level and profitability of foreign sales. We cannot predict the effect of such factors on our business.COMPETITIONThe competition in the programming systems market is highly fragmented with a large number of smaller organizations offering inexpensive solutions. While we are not aware of any published industry market information covering the programming systems market, according to our inside analysis, we estimate that the total number of programming systems sold during 2005 has been approximately $110 million, with Data I/O capturing an estimated 25% of the global market. Over the last four years, based on our analysis, we believe that Data I/O has gained market share versus our significant competitors.Competitive factors often include prices, features, device support and programming speed, as the programming process impacts more on the major manufacturers' total production process. However, competitive factors are changing. The added value for customers is becoming the whole product solution that fits the customer's business processes. As an example, ProLINE-RoadRunner offers a unique solution, which best addresses the customer's process needs in high volume Flash applications. To this extent, the value proposition of this specific programming solution is very different from traditional solutions.Therefore, addressing customers' process needs is critical to increasing the opportunity for programming solutions beyond the current amount in this market niche. We estimate that customers are spending between $2.0 billion to $2.5 billion a year on programming memory, microcontroller and logic devices and much of this programming is achieved through the use of the customers' test equipment offered by companies like Agilent and Teradyne or homegrown solutions for specific markets like automotive. The main competitive solution in the programmable market is, therefore, the in-house solution, and the opportunity exists to substitute customers' solutions with more economical and more easily maintainable solutions to solve the problems, which traditional programmers do not address. Boundary scan tools also fall into this category, although still a small market with a number of small companies participating who principally focus on test solutions. We expect that our new ImageWriter product will offer a competitive solution for the consumer electronics, automotive electronics and industrial automation customers in this market.MANUFACTURING, RAW MATERIALS, AND BACKLOGData I/O performs primarily assembly and testing of our products at our principal facility in Redmond, Washington and we outsource our circuit board manufacturing and fabrication. We use a combination of standard components, proprietary custom ICs and fabricated parts manufactured to Data I/O specifications. An outside supplier located in Germany manufactures our Sprint non-automated programming systems. Most components used are available from a number of different suppliers and subcontractors but certain items, such as some handler and programmer subassemblies, custom ICs, hybrid circuits and connectors, are purchased from single sources. We believe that additional sources can be developed for present single-source components without significant difficulties in obtaining supplies. We cannot be sure that single-source components will always continue to be readily available. If we cannot develop alternative sources for these components, or if we experience deterioration in relationships with these suppliers, there may be delays or reductions in product introductions or shipments, which may materially adversely affect our operating results.In accordance with industry practices, generally all orders are subject to cancellation prior to shipment without penalty, except for contracts calling for custom configuration. To date, such cancellations have not had a material effect on our sales volume.To meet customers' delivery requirements, we manufacture certain products based upon a combination of backlog and anticipated orders. Most orders are scheduled for delivery within 1 to 60 days after receipt of the order. Our backlog of pending orders was approximately $1.2 million, $1.5 million, and $1.5 million as of December 31, 2005, 2004, and 2003, respectively. The size of backlog at any particular date is not necessarily a meaningful indicator of the trend of our business.RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTData I/O believes that continued investment in research and development is critical to our future success. We continue to develop new technologies and products and enhance existing products. Future growth is to a large extent dependent upon the timely development and introduction of new products, as well as the development of algorithms to support the latest programmable devices. We are currently focusing our research and development efforts on strategic growth markets, namely new programming technology and automated handling systems for the manufacturing environment, including support for NAND FLASH and for M-Systems DiskOnChip(R) technology, microcontroller support for FlashCORE, additional platforms and improvements for ProLINE-RoadRunner, enhancements for our ImageWriter in-system programming solution and eDSS. We continue to also focus on increasing our capacity and responsiveness for new device support requests from customers and programmable IC manufacturers by revising and enhancing our internal processes and tools. During this past year, our research and development resulted in these new products: PS 588 and ImageWriter 300.During 2005, 2004, and 2003, we made expenditures for research and development of $5,286,000, $5,057,000, and $4,639,000, respectively, representing 18.7%, 18.5%, and 18.8%, of net sales, respectively. Research and development costs are expensed as incurred.PATENTS, COPYRIGHTS, TRADEMARKS, AND LICENSESIntellectual property rights applicable to various Data I/O products include patents, copyrights, trade secrets and trademarks. Data I/O also relies on patents, copyrights, trade secrets and trademarks to protect our intellectual property, as well as product development and marketing skill, to establish and protect our market position. We also grew our patent portfolio over the past few years as we developed strategic technologies like the ProLINE-RoadRunner and FlashCORE that are critical to our Connected Strategy.We attempt to protect our rights in proprietary software products, including TaskLink and other software products, by retaining the title to and copyright of the software and documentation, by including appropriate contractual restrictions on use and disclosure in our licenses, and by requiring our employees to execute non-disclosure agreements. Our software products are not normally sold separately from sales of programming systems. However, on those occasions where software is sold separately, revenue is recognized when a sales agreement exists, when delivery has occurred, when the fee is fixed or determinable, and when collectibility is probable.Because of the rapidly changing technology in the semiconductor, electronic equipment and software industries, portions of our products might possibly infringe upon existing patents or copyrights, and we may, therefore, be required to obtain licenses or discontinue the use of the infringing technology. We believe that any exposure we may have regarding possible infringement claims is a reasonable business risk similar to that assumed by other companies in the electronic equipment and software industries. However, any claim of infringement, with or without merit, could be costly and a diversion of management's attention, and an adverse determination could adversely affect our reputation, preclude us from offering certain products, and subject us to substantial liability.EMPLOYEESAs of December 31, 2005, we had 130 employees, of which 42 were located outside the U.S. We also utilize independent contractors for specialty work, primarily in research and development, and utilize temporary workers to adjust capacity to fluctuating demand. Many of our employees are highly skilled and our continued success will depend in part upon our ability to attract and retain employees who can be in great demand within the industry. None of our employees are represented by a collective bargaining unit and we believe relations with our employees are favorable.ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLIANCEOur facilities are subject to numerous laws and regulations concerning the discharge of materials or otherwise relating to the environment. Compliance with environmental laws has not had, nor is it expected to have, a material effect on our capital expenditures, financial position, results of operations or competitive position.EXECUTIVE OFFICERS OF THE REGISTRANTSet forth below is certain information concerning the executive officers of Data I/O as of March 27, 2006: Name Age Position ---- --- -------- Frederick R. Hume 63 President and Chief Executive Officer Joel S. Hatlen 47 Vice President Chief Financial Officer Secretary and Treasurer Harald A. Weigelt 46 Vice President Worldwide Sales and ServicesFrederick R. Hume joined Data I/O as President and Chief Executive Officer in February 1999. He was appointed to the Board of Directors of Data I/O in January 1999. From 1988 until his retirement in 1998, Mr. Hume served as Vice President and General Manager of Keithley Instruments in Cleveland, Ohio. From 1972 to 1988, he held various management positions at Fluke Corporation, including Group Vice President for Manufacturing and Research and Development.Joel S. Hatlen joined Data I/O in September 1991 and became Chief Accounting Officer and Corporate Controller in February 1997. In January 1998, he was promoted to Vice President of Finance and Chief Financial Officer, Secretary and Treasurer. He began his career at Data I/O as a Senior Tax Accountant and became Tax Manager in December 1992. From September 1981 until joining Data I/O, Mr. Hatlen was employed by Ernst & Young LLP, where his most recent position was Senior Manager.Harald A. Weigelt joined Data I/O in 1991, and in October 2005, he was appointed Vice President, Worldwide Sales and Services. Prior to this position, he served as the Vice President, European Operations and as Managing Director of Data I/O's operations in Germany. Prior to joining Data I/O, he was employed with Instrumatic, where he served as Product Manager and was employed with Wavetek as Product Manager.ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS -----------------------CAUTIONARY FACTORS THAT MAY AFFECT FUTURE RESULTSData I/O's disclosure and analysis in this Annual Report contains some forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements include our current expectations or forecasts of future events. The reader can identify these statements by the fact that they do not relate strictly to historical or current facts. In particular, these include statements relating to future action, prospective products, new technologies, establishing foreign operations, future performance or results of current and anticipated products, sales efforts, expenses, outsourcing of functions, outcome of contingencies, impact of regulatory requirements, restructure actions and financial results.Any or all of the forward-looking statements in this Annual Report or in any other public statement made may turn out to be wrong. They can be affected by inaccurate assumptions we might make, or known or unknown risks and uncertainties can affect these forward-looking statements. Many factors -- for example, product competition and product development -- will be important in determining future results. Moreover, neither Data I/O nor anyone else assumes responsibility for the accuracy and completeness of these forward-looking statements. Actual future results may materially vary.We undertake no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statements after the date of this Annual Report, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. The reader should not place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. The reader is advised, however, to consult any future disclosures Data I/O makes on related subjects in our 10-Q, 8-K and 10-K reports to the SEC and press releases. Also, note that Data I/O provides the following cautionary discussion of risks, uncertainties and possible inaccurate assumptions relevant to our business. These are factors that we think could cause Data I/O's actual results to differ materially from expected and historical results. Other factors besides those listed here could also adversely affect Data I/O. This discussion is permitted by the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995.RISK FACTORSDELAYS IN DEVELOPMENT, INTRODUCTION AND SHIPMENT OF NEW PRODUCTS MAY RESULT IN A DECLINE IN SALES.Data I/O currently is developing new engineering and automated programming systems. Significant technological, supplier, manufacturing or other problems may delay the development, introduction or production of these products.For example, we may encounter these problems:o technical problems in the development of a new programming system platform or the robotics for new automated handing systemso inability to hire qualified personnelo delays or failures to perform by third parties involved in our development projectsDelays in the development, completion and shipment of new products, or failure of customers to accept new products, may result in a decline in sales.QUARTERLY FLUCTUATIONS IN OUR OPERATING RESULTS MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR STOCK PRICE.Data I/O's operating results tend to vary from quarter to quarter. Our revenue in each quarter substantially depends upon orders received within that quarter. Conversely, our expenditures are based on investment plans and estimates of future revenues. We may, therefore, be unable to quickly reduce our spending if our revenues decline in a given quarter. As a result, operating results for that quarter will suffer. Our results of operations for any one quarter are not necessarily indicative of results for any future periods.Other factors, which may cause our quarterly operating results to fluctuate, include:o increased competitiono timing of new product announcementso product releases and pricing changes by us or our competitorso market acceptance or delays in the introduction of new productso production constraintso labor or material shortageso the timing of significant orderso the sales channel mix of direct vs. indirect distributiono war or terrorismo health issues (such as SARS)o customers' budgetso adverse movements in exchange rates, interest rates or tax rateso cyclical nature of demand for our customers' productso general economic conditions in the countries where we sell productso expenses and obtaining authorizations in setting up new operations or locationsDue to all of the foregoing factors, it is possible that in some future quarters, our operating results will be below expectations of analysts and investors.FAILURE TO ADAPT TO TECHNOLOGY TRENDS IN OUR INDUSTRY MAY HINDER OUR COMPETITIVENESS AND FINANCIAL RESULTS.Product technology in Data I/O's industry evolves rapidly, making timely product innovation essential to success in the marketplace. Introducing products with improved technologies or features may render our existing products obsolete and unmarketable. Technological advances that may negatively impact our business include:o new device package types, densities, and technologies requiring hardware and software changes in order to be programmed by our productso electronics equipment manufacturing practices, such as widespread use of in-circuit programmingo customer software platform preferences different from those on which our products operateo more rigid industry standards, which would decrease the value-added element of our products and support servicesIf we cannot develop products in a timely manner in response to industry changes, or if our products do not perform well, our business and financial condition may be adversely affected. Also, our new products may contain defects or errors that give rise to product liability claims against us or cause our products to fail to gain market acceptance. Our future success depends on our ability to successfully compete with other technology firms in attracting and retaining key technical personnel.A DECLINE IN ECONOMIC AND MARKET CONDITIONS MAY RESULT IN DECREASED CAPITAL SPENDING BY OUR CUSTOMERS.Our business is highly impacted by capital spending plans and other economic cycles that affect the users and manufacturers of ICs. These industries are highly cyclical and are characterized by rapid technological change, short product life cycles, fluctuations in manufacturing capacity and pricing and gross margin pressures. As we experienced in recent years, our operations may in the future reflect substantial fluctuations from period-to-period as a consequence of these industry patterns, general economic conditions affecting the timing of orders from major customers, and other factors affecting capital spending. These factors could have a material adverse effect on our business and financial condition.WE HAVE A HISTORY OF RECENT OPERATING LOSSES AND MAY BE UNABLE TO GENERATE ENOUGH REVENUE TO ACHIEVE AND MAINTAIN PROFITABILITY.We have incurred net losses in three of the last five years. We will continue to examine our level of operating expense based upon our projected revenues. Any planned increases in operating expenses may result in larger losses in future periods if projected revenues are not achieved. As a result, we may need to generate greater revenues than we have recently to achieve and maintain profitability. However, we cannot provide assurance that our revenues will increase and our strategy may not be successful, resulting in future losses.OUR PRIOR RESTRUCTURING ACTIVITIES MAY HAVE A NEGATIVE IMPACT ON OUR FUTURE OPERATIONS.Our restructuring plans may yield unanticipated consequences, such as increased burden on our administrative, operational, and financial resources and increased responsibilities for our management personnel. As a result, our ability to respond to unexpected challenges may be impaired and we may be unable to take advantage of new opportunities.In addition, many of the employees that were terminated as a part of our restructuring possessed specific knowledge or expertise, and that knowledge or expertise may prove to have been important to our operations. In that case, their absence may create significant difficulties, particularly if our business experiences significant growth. Also, the reduction in workforce related to our restructuring may subject us to the risk of litigation, which could result in substantial cost. Any failure by us to properly manage this rapid change in workforce could impair our ability to efficiently manage our business, to maintain and develop important relationships with third-parties, and to attract and retain customers. It could also cause us to incur higher operating cost and delays in the execution of our business plan or in the reporting or tracking of our financial results.WE MAY NEED TO RAISE ADDITIONAL CAPITAL AND OUR FUTURE ACCESS TO CAPITAL IS UNCERTAIN.Our past revenues have been and our future revenues may continue to be insufficient to support the expense of our operations and any expansion of our business. We may therefore need additional equity or debt capital to finance our operations. If we are unable to generate sufficient cash flows from operations or to obtain funds through additional debt or equity financing, we may have to reduce some or all of our development and sales and marketing efforts and limit the expansion of our business.We believe our existing cash and cash equivalents will be sufficient to meet our working capital requirements for at least the next twelve months. Thereafter, depending on the development of our business, we may need to raise additional cash for working capital or other expenses. We may also encounter opportunities for acquisitions or other business initiatives that require significant cash commitments, or unanticipated problems or expenses that could result in a requirement for additional cash before that time.Therefore, we may seek additional funding through public or private debt or equity financing or from other sources. We have no commitments for additional financing, and we may experience difficulty in obtaining funding on favorable terms, if at all. Any financing we obtain may contain covenants that restrict our freedom to operate our business or may require us to issue securities that have rights, preferences or privileges senior to our Common Stock and may dilute your ownership interest.WE MAY FACE INCREASED COMPETITION AND MAY NOT BE ABLE TO COMPETE SUCCESSFULLY WITH CURRENT AND FUTURE COMPETITORS.Technological advances have reduced the barriers of entry into the programming systems market. We expect competition to increase from both established and emerging companies. If we fail to compete successfully against current and future sources of competition, our profitability and financial performance will be adversely impacted.IF OUR RELATIONSHIP WITH SEMICONDUCTOR MANUFACTURERS DETERIORATES, OUR BUSINESS MAY BE ADVERSELY AFFECTED.We work closely with most semiconductor manufacturers to ensure that our programming systems comply with their requirements. In addition, many semiconductor manufacturers recommend our programming systems for use by users of their programmable devices. These working relationships enable us to keep our programming systems product lines up to date and provide end-users with broad and current programmable device support. Our business may be adversely affected if our relationships with semiconductor manufacturers deteriorate.OUR RELIANCE ON A SMALL NUMBER OF SUPPLIERS MAY RESULT IN A SHORTAGE OF KEY COMPONENTS, WHICH MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR BUSINESS.Certain parts used in our products are currently available from either a single supplier or from a limited number of suppliers. If we cannot develop alternative sources of these components, if sales of parts are discontinued by the supplier or we experience deterioration in our relationship with these suppliers, there may be delays or reductions in product introductions or shipments, which may materially adversely affect our operating results.Because we rely on a small number of suppliers for certain parts, we are subject to possible price increases by these suppliers. Also, we may be unable to accurately forecast our production schedule. If we underestimate our production schedule, suppliers may be unable to meet our demand for components. This delay in the supply of key components may materially adversely affect our business. Over estimation of demand will lead to excess inventories that may become obsolete.The non-automated programming system products we acquired when we acquired SMS in November 1998 are currently manufactured to our specifications by a third-party foreign contract manufacturer. We may not be able to obtain a sufficient quantity of these products if and when needed, which may result in lost sales.IF WE ARE UNABLE TO ATTRACT AND RETAIN QUALIFIED THIRD-PARTY DISTRIBUTORS, OUR BUSINESS MAY BE ADVERSELY AFFECTED.Data I/O has an internal sales force and also utilizes third-party representatives, and distributors. Therefore, the financial stability of these representatives and distributors is important. Highly skilled professional engineers use most of our products. To be effective, third-party distributors must possess significant technical, marketing and sales resources and must devote their resources to sales efforts, customer education, training and support. These required qualities limit the number of potential third-party distributors. Our business will suffer if we cannot attract and retain a sufficient number of qualified third-party distributors to market our products.OUR INTERNATIONAL OPERATIONS MAY EXPOSE US TO ADDITIONAL RISKS THAT MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR BUSINESS.International sales represented 78% of our net revenue for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2005 and 80% for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2004. We expect that international sales will continue to be a significant portion of our net revenue. International sales may fluctuate due to various factors, including:o migration of manufacturing to low cost geographieso unexpected changes in regulatory requirementso tariffs and taxeso difficulties in establishing, staffing and managing foreign operationso longer average payment cycles and difficulty in collecting accounts receivableo fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rateso compliance with applicable export licensing requirementso product safety and other certification requirementso difficulties in integrating foreign and outsourced operationso political and economic instabilityThe European Community and European Free Trade Association ("EU") has established certain electronic emission and product safety requirements ("CE"). Although our products currently meet these requirements, failure to obtain either a CE certification or a waiver for any product may prevent us from marketing that product in Europe. The EU also has directives concerning the Reduction of Hazardous Substances ("RoHS") from which Data I/O is relying on an exemption for test and measurement companies. Failure to meet applicable directives or qualifying exemption may prevent us from marketing certain products in Europe or other territories with similar requirements.We operate subsidiaries in Germany, China, Canada and Brazil. Our business and financial condition is sensitive to currency exchange rates or any other restrictions imposed on their currencies. Currency exchange fluctuations in Canada, China, Brazil and Germany may adversely affect our investment in our subsidiaries.IF WE ARE UNABLE TO PROTECT OUR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, WE MAY NOT BE ABLE TO COMPETE EFFECTIVELY OR OPERATE PROFITABLY.Data I/O relies on patents, copyrights, trade secrets and trademarks to protect our intellectual property, as well as product development and marketing skill to establish and protect our market position. We attempt to protect our rights in proprietary software products, including TaskLink and other software products, by retaining the title to and copyright of the software and documentation, by including appropriate contractual restrictions on use and disclosure in our licenses, and by requiring our employees to execute non-disclosure agreements.Because of the rapidly changing technology in the semiconductor, electronic equipment and software industries, portions of our products might possibly infringe upon existing patents or copyrights, and we may, therefore, be required to obtain licenses or discontinue the use of the infringing technology. We believe that any exposure we may have regarding possible infringement claims is a reasonable business risk similar to that assumed by other companies in the electronic equipment and software industries. However, any claim of infringement, with or without merit, could be costly and a diversion of management's attention, and an adverse determination could adversely affect our reputation, preclude us from offering certain products, and subject us to substantial liability.WE MAY PURSUE BUSINESS ACQUISITIONS THAT COULD IMPAIR OUR FINANCIAL POSITION AND PROFITABILITY.We may pursue acquisitions of complementary technologies, product lines or businesses. Future acquisitions may include risks, such as:o burdening management and our operating teams during the integration of the acquired entityo diverting management's attention from other business concernso failing to successfully integrate the acquired productso lack of acceptance of the acquired products by our sales channels or customerso entering markets where we have no or limited prior experienceo potential loss of key employees of the acquired companyo additional burden of support for an acquired programmer architectureFuture acquisitions may also impact Data I/O's financial position. For example, we may use significant cash or incur additional debt, which would weaken our balance sheet. We may also capitalize goodwill and intangible assets acquired, the impairment of which would reduce our profitability. We cannot guarantee that future acquisitions will improve our business or operating results.THE LOSS OF KEY EMPLOYEES MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR OPERATIONS.We have employees located in the U.S., Germany, Canada and China. We also utilize independent contractors for specialty work, primarily in research and development and in our Brazilian operation, and utilize temporary workers to adjust capacity to fluctuating demand. Many of our employees are highly skilled and our continued success will depend in part upon our ability to attract and retain employees who can be in great demand within the industry. None of our employees are represented by a collective bargaining unit and we believe relations with our employees are favorable though no assurance can be made that this will be the case in the future. Refer to the section captioned "Our prior restructuring activities may have a negative impact on our future operations" above.FAILURE TO COMPLY WITH REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR STOCK PRICE AND BUSINESS.As a public company, we are subject to numerous governmental and stock exchange requirements, with which we believe we are in compliance. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) have requirements that we may fail to meet by the required deadlines or we may fall out of compliance with, such as the internal controls assessment, reporting and auditor attestation required under Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, with which we are not yet required to comply as we are not an accelerated filer. The compliance date for non-accelerated filers has been extended to the first fiscal year ending on or after July 15, 2007. Data I/O assumes it will continue to have the status of a non-accelerated filer based on the aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting shares held as of June 30, 2005. During the course of our testing we may identify deficiencies which we may not be able to remediate in time to meet the deadline imposed by the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 for compliance with the requirements of Section 404. We may also incur additional costs in order to comply with Section 404. In addition, if we fail to achieve and maintain the adequacy of our internal controls, as such standards are modified, supplemented or amended from time to time, we may not be able to ensure that we can conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal controls over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Moreover, effective internal controls, particularly those related to revenue recognition, are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to help prevent financial fraud. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our business and operating results could be harmed, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information, and the trading price of our stock could drop significantly. Our failure to meet regulatory requirements and exchange listing standards may result in actions such as the delisting of our stock impacting our stock's liquidity; SEC enforcement actions; and securities claims and litigation.OUR STOCK PRICE MAY BE VOLATILE AND, AS A RESULT, YOU MAY LOSE SOME OR ALL OF YOUR INVESTMENT.The stock prices of technology companies tend to fluctuate significantly. We believe factors such as announcements of new products by us or our competitors and quarterly variations in financial results may cause the market price of Data I/O's Common Stock to fluctuate substantially. In addition, overall volatility in the stock market, particularly in the technology company sector, is often unrelated to the operating performance of companies. If these market fluctuations continue in the future, they may adversely affect the price of Data I/O's Common Stock.FAILURE TO SUCCESSFULLY IMPLEMENT A NEW WORLDWIDE INFORMATION SYSTEM MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR OPERATIONS AND SALES.We have recently acquired and are currently implementing a new worldwide information system. Our corporate office began use of the new system in February 2006. We are now in the process of implementing the new system at our subsidiary locations. Our operations and financial results could be adversely affected if we are unable to complete the system implement without significant interruptions in accounting systems, order entry, billing, manufacturing and other customer support functions. In addition, the costs associated with the implementation and training could exceed budgeted amounts and adversely affect our profitability and liquidity. System implementation delays could cause difficulties in our complying with the internal controls assessment, reporting and auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.MOVING OUR HEADQUARTERS AND MANUFACTURING OPERATION MAY ADVERSELY AFFECT OUR OPERATIONS AND SALES.We anticipate moving our Redmond headquarters and manufacturing operation in mid-year 2006 from our current location to a smaller location in Redmond, Washington. If we are not able to timely and successfully complete the move, our short-term ability to manufacture and ship products and our sales could be adversely affected.ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS -----------------------------------None.