Juniper Networks, Inc. (JNPR) - Description of business

Company Description
     We design and sell products and services that together provide our customers with purpose-built, high performance Internet Protocol (“IP”) platforms that enable them to support a wide variety of services and applications at scale. Our customers include service providers, enterprises, governments and research and education institutions, who rely on us to deliver a portfolio of proven networking, security and application acceleration solutions that solve highly complex, fast-changing problems in the world’s most demanding networks.     In 2006 we invested in our internal research and product innovation both for release in the year and for future release. We made several significant new product and strategy announcements in 2006 for both our service provider and our enterprise customers.     In 2005, we completed the following five acquisitions: Kagoor Networks, Inc. (“Kagoor”), Redline Networks, Inc (“Redline”), Peribit Networks, Inc. (“Peribit”), Acorn Packet Solutions, Inc. (“Acorn”), and Funk Software, Inc. (“Funk”). In 2004, we completed the acquisition of NetScreen Technologies, Inc. (“NetScreen”). These acquisitions expanded our customer base and product portfolio.     We continued to define our portfolio of products into the following two categories of networking products:   •   Infrastructure products, which consist predominately of our router portfolio, and the acquired Kagoor and Acorn products.     •   Service Layer Technologies (“SLT”) products, which consist predominately of the former NetScreen, Peribit, Redline and Funk products.      Our operations are organized into three operating segments: Infrastructure, SLT, and Service. Our Infrastructure segment primarily offers scalable router products that are used to control and direct network traffic from the core, through the edge, aggregation and the customer premise equipment level. Our SLT segment offers solutions that meet a broad array of our customer’s priorities, from protecting the network itself, and protecting data on the network, to maximizing existing bandwidth and acceleration of applications across a distributed network. Together, our high performance secure networking solutions help enable our customers to convert networks that provide commoditized, best efforts services into more valuable assets that provide differentiation and value and increased reliability and security to end users. Our Service segment delivers world-wide services to customers of the Infrastructure and SLT segments.     During our fiscal year ended December 31, 2006 we generated net revenues of $2.3 billion and conducted business in nearly 100 countries. See the information in Item 8 for more information on our consolidated financial position as of December 31, 2006 and 2005 and our consolidated results of operations, consolidated statements of stockholders’ equity, and consolidated statements of cash flows for each of the three years in the period ended December 31, 2006.     We were incorporated in California in 1996 and reincorporated in Delaware in 1998. Our corporate headquarters is located in Sunnyvale, California. Our website address is Strategy     Our objective and strategy is to provide best-in-class traffic processing technologies that allow our customers to provide a secure and reliable, high performance network experience for any application on an IP network. Our technological leadership and complex problem solving abilities combined with our experience and fundamental understanding of the requirements of high performance IP secure networking solutions will help us in meeting our objectives. Key elements of our strategy are described below.      Maintain and Extend Technology Leadership . Our application-specific integrated circuit (“ASIC”) technology, operating system and network-optimized product architecture have been key elements to establishing our technology leadership. We believe that these elements can be leveraged into future products that we are currently developing. We intend to maintain and extend our technological leadership in the service provider and enterprise markets primarily through innovation and continued investment in our research and development departments, supplemented by external partnerships, including strategic alliances, as well as acquisitions that would allow us to deliver a broader range of products and services to customers in target markets.      Leverage Position as Supplier of Purpose-Built Network Infrastructure and Security . From inception we have focused on designing and building IP network infrastructure for service providers and network intensive businesses and have integrated purpose-built technology into a network optimized architecture that specifically meets our customers’ needs. We believe that many of these customers will deploy networking equipment from only a few vendors. We believe that the purpose-built nature of our products provide us with a competitive advantage, which is critical in gaining selection as one of these vendors.      Be Strategic to Our Customers . In developing our infrastructure and SLT solutions, we work very closely with customers to design and build a product specifically to meet their complex needs. Over time, we have expanded our understanding of the challenges facing these customers. That increased understanding has enabled us to subsequently design additional capabilities into our products. We believe our close relationships with, and constant feedback from, our customers have been key elements in our design wins and rapid deployment to date. We plan to continue to work very closely with our customers to implement product enhancements as well as to design future products that meet their evolving needs.      Enable New IP-Based Services . Our platforms enable network operators to build and secure networks cost-effectively and to offer new differentiated services for their customers more efficiently than legacy network products. We believe that the secure delivery of IP-based services and applications, including Internet Protocol Television (“IPTV”), web hosting, outsourced Internet and intranet services, outsourced enterprise applications and voice-over IP, will continue to grow and are cost-effectively enabled by our secure networking solutions.      Establish and Develop Industry Partnerships . Our customers have diverse requirements. While our products meet certain requirements of our customers, our products are not intended to satisfy certain other requirements. Therefore, we believe that it is important that we build relationships with other industry leaders in a diverse set of networking technologies and services. These relationships ensure that we have access to those technologies and services, whether through technology integration, joint development, resale or other collaboration, in order to better support a broader set of our customers’ requirements.Markets and Customers     We sell our products and services through direct sales and through distributors and value-added resellers to end-users in the following markets:      Service Providers      Service providers include wireline, wireless, and cable operators as well as major internet content providers. Supporting most major service provider networks in the world, our platforms are designed and built for the scale and dependability that service providers demand. Our secure networking solutions benefit these customers by:   •   Reducing capital and operational costs by running multiple services over the same network using our high density, highly reliable platforms;     •   Promoting generation of additional revenue by enabling new services to be offered to new market segments based on our product capabilities;     •   Increasing customer satisfaction, while lowering costs, by enabling consumers to self-select automatically provisioned service packages that provide the quality, speed and pricing they desire; and     •   Providing increased asset longevity and higher return on investment as their networks can scale to multi-terabit rates based on the capabilities of our platforms.      While many of these service providers have historically been categorized separately as wireless, wireline, or cable operators, in 2006 we saw a move towards convergence of these different types of service providers through acquisition, merger and partnerships. We believe these strategic developments are made technically possible as operators invest in next generation networks (“NGN”) capable of supporting voice, video and data traffic on to the same IP-based network. This convergence relies on IP-based traffic processing and creates the opportunity for multi-service networks including new service offerings such as IPTV. These new services offer service providers significant new revenue opportunities.     We believe that there are several other trends affecting service providers for which we are well positioned to deliver products and solutions. These trends include significant growth in IP traffic on service provider networks as a result of peer-to-peer interaction,broadband usage, video, and an increasing reliance on the network as a mission critical business tool in the strategies of our IP customers, and of their enterprise customers.     The IP infrastructure market for service providers includes: products and technology at the network core; the network edge to enable access; the aggregation layer; security to protect from the inside out and the outside in; the application awareness and intelligence to optimize the network to meet business and user needs; and the management and control of the entire infrastructure.     Our products are present in all of the 30 largest service provider networks in the world.      Enterprise      Our high performance secure networking solutions are designed to meet the reliability and scalability demanded by the world’s most advanced networks. For this reason, network intensive enterprises, federal, state and local governments, and research and education institutions that rely on their networks for the operation of their business are able to deploy our solutions as a powerful component in delivering the advanced network capabilities needed for their leading-edge applications while:   •   Reducing costs through operational efficiencies in implementing and managing the network;     •   Driving down capital expenses with sophisticated network intelligence that is robust, secure, and scalable;     •   Providing enterprises with the control necessary to deliver a secure and reliable user experience to their customers and internal clients; and     •   Working as a business partner for the long term with the optimal combination of flexibility, responsiveness, technical know-how and financial strength.      The enterprise market continues to be an important part of our business growth during 2006 driven in particular by growth in the second half of the year. Since we first entered the market, we have sold our products to over 20,000 enterprise customers and as of December 31, 2006 we had more than 9,000 channel partners.     As with the service provider market, innovation continues to be a critical component in our strategy for the enterprise market. We believe there is a growing need for enterprises to build advanced networks with real time information and reliable network performance. These enterprises need high performing, scalable and secure networks that are global, distributed and always available. Network equipment vendors need to demonstrate high performance and high security to these customers in specific segments with best-in-class open solutions for maximum flexibility. We offer enterprise solutions and services for data centers, branch and campus applications, distributed and extended enterprises, and Wide Area Network (“WAN”) gateways.     We believe that the market is moving toward high performance, integrated solutions to drive increased operational efficiencies. This is partly illustrated by the success of our Integrated Security Gateway (“ISG”) products that combine firewall/virtual private network (“VPN”) and intrusion detection and prevention (“IDP”) solutions in a single platform and Secure Services Gateway (“SSG”) platforms that provide a mix of high performance security with Local Area Network (“LAN”)/WAN connectivity for regional and branch office deployments. We will continue to invest to develop these and other converged technologies and solutions.Fundamental Requirements for High Performance Secure Networks     As they work to support growth in IP traffic and seek to offer new revenue-generating or mission-critical services, our customers require secure network solutions that are not only feature rich but also deliver high reliability, high performance and assured user experiences.     At the same time, both service providers and enterprises must focus on detecting and preventing the ever increasing number of security threats facing the network itself and the data that flows across the network. This security must be innate to networking products and must not come at the expense of overall performance or unjustifiable cost.     Feature richness, high reliability, security, high performance, scalability, and cost effectiveness are each fundamental requirements in meeting the needs associated with the growth in IP traffic and the delivery of value-added services to end users.      Feature Richness. The importance of increasing revenue streams and decreasing capital and operational costs for our customers is a significant priority in the industry. Service providers want to sell more revenue generating services with better cost efficiencies. Enterprises and other network operators want to provide a network experience to their end users on a cost effective but value-generating basis. Each of these goals is ultimately a function of the features and capabilities that can be securely provided on each of the network elements. As networks advance, more and more features are required to sell new services as well as to lower the ongoing costs of operating the network. Next generation networking solutions therefore need to have flexibility to add new capabilities frequently without compromising the performance of the system, which gets increasingly difficult as the network demands increase.      High Reliability . As businesses and consumers increasingly rely on IP networks for mission-critical applications, high network reliability is essential. As a result, those businesses and consumers expect service providers to deliver a high degree of reliability in their networks.      Security . Today’s network environment presents an ever-increasing number of challenges regarding network security ranging from simple denial of service attacks to sophisticated, pervasive and malicious intrusions. The importance of security is increasing within all of our customers and we are continually improving and evolving the security capabilities on all of our product solutions. It is extremely important to provide comprehensive network-based security services that are fully integrated, free of performance trade-offs, and scaleable to any customer or market.      High Performance Without Compromising Intelligence . To handle the rapid growth in IP traffic, today’s network operators increasingly require secure networking solutions that can operate at higher speeds, while still delivering real-time services such as security and quality-of-service features. The processing of data packets at these high speeds requires sophisticated forwarding technology to inspect each packet and assign it to a destination based on priority, data type and other considerations. Because a large number of IP packets, many of which perform critical administrative functions, are small in size, high performance IP routers need to achieve their specified transmission speeds even for small packet sizes. Because smaller packets increase packet processing demands, routing large numbers of smaller packets tends to be more resource intensive than routing of larger packets. A wire speed router, which achieves its specified transmission rate for any type of traffic passing through it, can accomplish this task. Thus, provisioning of mission-critical services increasingly requires the high performance enabled by wire speed processing.      High Performance Under Stressful Conditions . In a large and complex network, individual components inevitably fail. However, the failure of an individual device or link must not compromise the network as a whole. In a typical network, when a failure occurs, the network loses some degree of capacity and, in turn, a greater load falls on the remaining network routers, which must provide alternate routes. IP infrastructure must quickly adjust to the new state of the network to maintain packet forwarding rates and avoid dropping significant numbers of packets when active routes are lost or when large numbers of routes change. Routing protocols are used to accomplish this convergence, a process that places even greater stress on the router. Given the complexity of IP network infrastructure, the convergence process is complex and places a far greater load on the router, thereby requiring a much more sophisticated device.      Scalability . Due to the rapid growth in IP traffic, service providers must continuously expand their networks, both in terms of increased numbers of access points of presence (“PoPs”), and also greater capacity per PoP. To facilitate this expansion process, secure networking solutions must be highly scalable. Next generation network appliances therefore need to be flexible and configurable to function within constantly changing networks while incurring minimal downtime.      High Return on Investment . Continued growth in IP traffic, price competition in the telecommunications market and increasing pressure for network operators to attain higher returns on their network infrastructure investments all contribute to our customers’ desire for solutions that significantly reduce the capital expenditures required to build and operate their networks. In addition to the basic cost of equipment, network operators incur substantial ancillary costs for the space required to deploy the equipment, power consumed and ongoing operation and maintenance of the equipment. Network operators therefore want to deploy dense and varied equipment configurations in limited amounts of rack and floor space. Therefore, in order to continue to scale their networks toward higher data speeds in a cost effective manner, network operators need the ability to mix and match easily many different speed connections at appropriate densities, without significantly increasing the consumption of space or power and driving costs higher.     These requirements define a clear need for IP infrastructure and security solutions that can support high speeds and offer new IP-based services. At the same time, network operators are eagerly seeking new solutions that increase the level of scalability and reliability within their networks and reduce the cost of their architectures.Our Technology and Products     Early in our history, we developed, marketed and sold the first commercially available purpose-built IP backbone router optimized for the specific high performance needs of service providers. As the need for core bandwidth continued to increase, the need for service rich platforms at the edge of the network was created. Our infrastructure products are designed to address the needs at the core and the edge of the network as well as for wireless access by combining high-performance packet forwarding technology and robust operating systems into a network-optimized solution. In addition, as enterprises continue to develop and rely upon more sophisticated and pervasive internal networks, we believe the need for products with high-performance routing technology is expanding to a broader set of customers, and we believe our expertise in this technology positions us to address this growing market opportunity.     We offer a broad family of network security solutions that deliver high performance, cost-effective security for enterprises, service providers and government entities, including firewall and VPN systems and appliances, secure sockets layer (“SSL”) VPN appliances, and IDP appliances. With the acquisitions of Funk, Peribit, Redline, and Kagoor, we added complementary products and technologies to our SLT product family that enable our customers to provide additional IP-based services and enhance the performance and security of their existing networks and applications.      Infrastructure Products      We believe that an overview of the physical nature of our infrastructure products is helpful in understanding the operation of our business.     Although specific designs vary among our product families, our platforms are essentially modular, with the chassis serving as the base of the platform. The chassis contains components that enable and support many of the fundamental functions of the router, such as power supplies, cooling fans, and components that run our JUNOS or JUNOSe operating system, perform high-speed packet forwarding, or keep track of the structure of the network and instruct the packet forwarding components where to send packets. Each chassis has a certain number of slots that are available to be populated with components we refer to as modules or interfaces.     The modules are the components through which the router receives incoming packets of data from the network over a variety of transmission media. The physical connection between a transmission medium and a module is referred to as a port. The number of ports on a module varies widely depending on the functionality and throughput offered by the module. In some cases, modules do not contain ports or physically receive packets from the network, but rather enhance the overall functionality of the router. We refer to these components as service modules.     Major infrastructure product families are summarized as follows:   •   M-Series and T-Series: Our M-series platforms are extremely versatile as they can be deployed at the edge of operator networks, in small and medium core networks, enterprise networks and in other applications. The M-series product family includes the M320, M160, M120, M40e, M20, M10i and M7i platforms. The MX-Series is a new product family developed as a platform to address the Carrier Ethernet market and the MX960 is the first in a series of platforms designed for emerging Ethernet network architectures and services. Our T-series platforms, T640, T320, and TX Matrix, are primarily designed for core IP infrastructures. The M-series and T-series products leverage our ASIC technology and the same JUNOS operating system to enable consistent, continuous, reliable and predictable service delivery.     •   E-Series: Our E-series products are a full featured platform with support for carrier-class routing, broadband subscriber management services and a comprehensive set of IP services. The E-series family includes the ERX-1440, -1410, -710, -705 and -310 platforms and the E320 platform. Leveraging our JUNOSe operating system, the E-Series service delivery architecture enables service providers to easily deploy innovative revenue generating services to their customers and avoid the costly and limiting piecemeal outcomes that result from equipment that delivers inconsistent edge services. All E-Series platforms offer a full suite of routing protocols and provide scalable capacity for tens of thousands of users.       SLT Products      SLT products provide network security solutions and enable our customers to provide additional IP-based services and enhance the performance and security of their existing networks and applications.     Major SLT product families are summarized as follows:   •   Firewall and VPN Systems: Our NS-5400, -5200, and -500 products and ISG-2000 and -1000 products are high performance security systems designed to provide integrated firewall, VPN and denial of service protection capabilities for enterprise       environments and carrier network infrastructures. Our ISG-2000 and -1000 products can also deliver intrusion detection and prevention functionality with the addition of optional security modules to the base ISG chassis. Each of our firewall and VPN systems can be deployed in high bandwidth environments and can be used to deliver managed security services. Our firewall and VPN systems allow unique security policies to be enforced for multiple virtual local area networks, or Virtual LANs (“VLANs”), allowing a single system to secure multiple networks. Our security systems also allow for the creation of multiple Virtual Systems, each providing a unique security domain with its own virtual firewall and VPN and dedicated management interface. These features enable enterprises, service providers and government entities to use a single security system to secure multiple networks and enable carriers to deliver security services to multiple customers.   •   Firewall and VPN Appliances: Our SSG family of products represents a new class of purpose-built security appliance that delivers a mix of high performance, security and LAN/WAN connectivity for regional and branch office deployments. The SSG appliances combine proven firewall/VPN and robust routing with a set of Unified Threat Management (“UTM”) security features to protect traffic as it flows in and out of the branch office. Our NS-208, -204, -100, -50, -25, -5XT and -5XP security appliances are fixed configuration products of varying performance characteristics that offer integrated firewall, VPN and denial of service protection capabilities. Our security appliances are designed to maximize security and performance while using less physical space than competing products. Our security appliances can be deployed to provide small to medium-sized businesses and enterprise remote locations with secure Internet access and communication.     •   SSL VPN Appliances: Our Secure Access-6000, -4000 and -2000, and -700 appliances are used to secure remote access for mobile employees, secure extranets for customers and partners, and secure intranets. Our SSL VPN appliances are designed to be used in enterprise environments of all sizes.     •   IDP Appliances: Our IDP-1100, -600, -200 and -50 appliances utilize intrusion detection methods to increase the attack detection accuracy and provide the broadest attack detection coverage available. Our IDP appliances provide fast and efficient traffic processing and alarm collection, presentation and forwarding. Once an attack is detected, our IDP appliances prevent the intrusion by dropping the packets or connection associated with the attack, reducing or eliminating the effects of the attack. Our IDP appliances can also alert the IT staff to respond to the attack. Our IDP appliances can be clustered to provide high availability and reduce risk associated with a single point of failure.     •   Application Acceleration Platforms: Our WX, WXC, and DX products improve the performance of client-server and web-enabled business applications for branch-office, remote, and mobile users. These application acceleration platforms enable our customers to deliver LAN-like performance to users around the globe who access centralized applications.     •   Unified Access Control (“UAC”) Solution: Using our UAC 2.0 solution, our IC-4000 and -6000 appliances combine identity-based policy and end-point intelligence to give enterprises real-time visibility and policy control throughout the network.     •   AAA and 802.1X Products: Our family of AAA and 802.1X network access security products, including our Odyssey Access Client and Steel Belted Radius products, are a key component to uniform security policy enforcement across all network access methods, including wireless LAN, remote/VPN, dial, and identity-based (wired 802.1X) methods.      In 2006, we announced several significant new products for both of our Infrastructure and SLT products including, but not limited to, the following:      Infrastructure:   •   The MX960 Ethernet Services Router, a high-density, purpose-built, platform designed to address the “Carrier Ethernet” market. The MX960 is the first in a series of platforms designed for emerging Ethernet network architectures and services, and complements many products and technologies introduced by us in 2006. We expect to begin shipment of the MX960 in the first quarter of 2007.     •   A series of enhancements for the E320 broadband services router. These enhancements include the delivery of new interface cards with advanced capabilities designed to reduce the complexity of deploying Internet Protocol Television (“IPTV”) and other services.     •   The new M120 platform which is our next generation multi-service edge and small core routing platform.     •   A new T-series 40 Gbps interface card was also released which delivers enhanced interoperability and service agility over optical transport and IP network infrastructures.       SLT:   •   The SSG family of branch office security products. The new SSG products combine firewall, virtual private network (“VPN”) and routing functionality with UTM security features to protect traffic as it flows in and out of the enterprise branch offices.     •   Our branch office strategy, which leverages our standards-based application acceleration, IP telephony, routing and security products. This includes a full branch solution using our SSG security platforms and new J4350 and J6350 J-series enterprise routers. The strategy also includes a range of new implementation services and the integration of Intelligent Communications capabilities from Avaya, offering customers increased choice and flexibility for branch offices.     •   The completion of integration of our 802.1X components with our new UAC 2.0 solution, including elements of our Odyssey Access Client and Steel-Belted Radius products. As an open standards-access control solution, UAC 2.0 can be deployed in a flexible array of deployment scenarios to give enterprises real-time visibility and granular policy control throughout the network.     •   New additions to our WX and DX application acceleration platforms, which advance performance and availability and management of our comprehensive data center solution and are designed to meet the changing requirements for enterprise data centers.      See Note 12 in Item 8 for a breakdown of net product revenues by segment.Customer Service and Support     In addition to infrastructure products and SLT products, we offer the following services: 24x7x365 technical assistance, hardware repair and replacement parts, unspecified software updates on a when and if available basis, professional services and educational services. We deliver these services directly to major end users and also utilize a multi-tiered support model, leveraging the capabilities of our partners and third party organizations as appropriate.     We also train our channel partners in the delivery of education and support services to ensure locally delivered training.     As of December 31, 2006, we employed 611 people in our worldwide customer service and support organization. We believe that a broad range of support services is essential to the successful customer deployment and ongoing support of our products and we have hired support engineers with proven network experience to provide those services.Sales and Marketing     As of December 31, 2006, we employed 1,591 people in our worldwide sales and marketing organizations. These sales employees operate in different locations around the world in support of our customers.     Our sales organization is organized into three geographic theaters and within each theater according to the particular needs in that market. Our three geographic theaters are (i) the Americas (including United States, Canada, Central and South America), (ii) Europe, Middle East and Africa and (iii) Asia Pacific. Within each theater there are regional and country teams to ensure we operate close to the customer.     The sales teams operate in their respective regions and generally either engage customers directly or manage customer opportunities through our distribution and reseller relationships or channels as described below. In the United States and Canada, we sell to several service providers directly and sell to other service providers and enterprise customers primarily through resellers. Almost all of our sales outside the United States and Canada are made through channel partners.     See Note 12 in Item 8 for information concerning our revenues by significant customers and by geographic region.      Direct Sales Structure      Where we have a direct relationship with our customers the terms and conditions are governed either by customer purchase orders and our acknowledgement of those orders, or by purchase contracts. In instances where we have direct contracts with our customer, those contracts set forth only general terms of sale and do not require customers to purchase specified quantities of our products. For this type of customer our sales team engages directly with the customer. Customer purchase orders are received, and processed directly, by Juniper Networks.      Channel Sales Structure      A critical part of our sales and marketing efforts are our channel partners through whom we do the majority of our business. We employ various channel partners:   •   A global network of strategic distribution relationships, as well as theater or country-specific distributors who in turn sell to local value added resellers who sell to the end-user customer. The distribution channel partners mainly sell our SLT products plus some router products that are often purchased by our enterprise customers. These distributors tend to be focused on particular theaters or particular countries within theaters. For example, we have substantial distribution relationships with Ingram Micro in the Americas and with NEC in Japan. Our agreements with these distributors are generally non-exclusive, limited by theater, and provide product discounts and other ordinary terms of sale. These agreements do not require our distributors to purchase specified quantities of our products.     •   Direct value-added resellers including our strategic resellers referenced below, which resell our products to end-users around the world. These direct value-added resellers buy the products and services directly from us and have expertise in deploying complex networking solutions in their respective markets. Our agreements with these direct value-added resellers are generally non-exclusive, limited by theater, and provide product discounts and other ordinary terms of sale. These agreements do not require our direct value-added resellers to purchase specified quantities of our products.     •   Strategic world-wide reseller relationships with Siemens AG, Ericsson Telekom A.B. and Alcatel-Lucent. These companies each offer services and products that complement, but in some cases compete with, our own product offerings and act as a fulfillment partner for our products. Our arrangements with each of these partners allow them to resell our products on a worldwide, non-exclusive basis, provide for discounts based upon the volume of products sold and specify other general terms of sale. The agreements do not require these partners to purchase specified quantities of our products. Siemens accounted for greater than 10% of our total net revenues in 2006.      Within each theater we employ sales professionals to assist with the management of our various sales channels. In addition we have a “direct touch” sales team that works directly with the channel partners on key accounts in order to maintain a direct relationship with our more strategic end user customers while at the same time supporting the ultimate fulfillment of product through our channel partners.     Our sales team is generally split between service provider and enterprise customers, with each separate team ensuring focus on the key customers in these respective markets. There is a structure of sales professionals, system engineers, marketing and channel teams each focused on the respective service provider and enterprise markets.Research and Development     As of December 31, 2006, we employed 2,070 people in our worldwide research and development organization. We have assembled a team of skilled engineers with extensive experience in the fields of high-end computing, network system design, security, routing protocols and embedded operating systems. These individuals have worked in leading computer data networking and telecommunications companies. In addition to building complex hardware and operating systems, the engineering team has experience in delivering highly integrated ASICs and scalable technology.     We believe that strong product development capabilities are essential to our strategy of enhancing our core technology, developing additional applications, incorporating that technology and maintaining the competitiveness of our product and service offerings. In our infrastructure and SLT products, we are leveraging our ASIC technology, developing additional network interfaces targeted to our customer applications and continuing to develop next generation technology to support the anticipated growth in IP network requirements. We continue to expand the functionality of our products to improve performance reliability and scalability, and to provide an enhanced user interface.     Our research and development process is driven by the availability of new technology, market demand and customer feedback. We have invested significant time and resources in creating a structured process for all product development projects. This process involves all functional groups and all levels. Following an assessment of market demand, our research and development team develops a full set of comprehensive functional product specifications based on inputs from the product management and sales organizations. This process is designed to provide a framework for defining and addressing the steps, tasks and activities required to bring product concepts and development projects to market.Manufacturing and Operations     As of December 31, 2006, we employed 149 people in manufacturing and operations who primarily manage relationships with our contract manufacturers, manage our supply chain, and monitor and manage product testing and quality.     We have historically had manufacturing relationships primarily with Celestica and Plexus, under which we have subcontracted the majority of our manufacturing activity. During 2006 we made a strategic decision to expand our manufacturing capabilities into China to supplement our existing manufacturing in the United States and Canada. As a result, we expanded our relationship with Celestica in China, and added Flextronics as an additional contract manufacturer in China.     This subcontracting activity in all locations extends from prototypes to full production and includes activities such as material procurement, final assembly, test, control, shipment to our customers and repairs. Together with our contract manufacturers, we design, specify, and monitor the tests that are required to meet internal and external quality standards. These arrangements provide us with the following benefits:   •   We conserve the working capital that would be required for funding inventory;     •   We can quickly deliver products to customers with turnkey manufacturing and drop-shipment capabilities;     •   We gain economies of scale because, by purchasing large quantities of common components, our contract manufacturers obtain more favorable pricing than if we were buying components alone;     •   We operate without dedicating significant space to manufacturing operations; and     •   We can reduce our costs by reducing fixed overhead expenses.      Our contract manufacturers manufacture our products based on rolling forecasts from us about our product demands. Each of the contract manufacturers procures components necessary to assemble the products in our forecast and test the products according to our specifications. Products are then shipped directly to our distributors, value-added resellers or end-users. We generally do not own the components, and title to the products transfers from the contract manufacturers to us and immediately to our customers upon shipment. In certain circumstances, we may be liable to our contract manufacturers for carrying and obsolete material charges for excess components purchased based on our forecasts.     Although we have contracts with our contract manufacturers, those contracts merely set forth a framework within which the contract manufacturer may accept purchase orders from us. The contracts do not require them to manufacture our products on a long-term basis.     Our ASICs are manufactured primarily by sole or limited sources, such as IBM Corporation and Toshiba Corporation, each of whom is responsible for all aspects of the production of the ASICs using our proprietary designs.     We have at our core five key values: trust, integrity, respect, humility and excellence. These values are integral to how we manage our company and interact with our employees, customers, partners and suppliers. By working collaboratively with our suppliers, we also have the opportunity to promote socially responsible business practices beyond Juniper Networks and into our worldwide supply chain. To this end, we have adopted, and promote the adoption by others, of the Electronic Industry Code of Conduct. The Electronic Industry Code of Conduct outlines standards to ensure that working conditions in the electronics industry supply chain are safe, that workers are treated with respect and dignity, and that manufacturing processes are environmentally responsible.Backlog     Our sales are made primarily pursuant to standard purchase orders for delivery of products or services or purchase orders under framework agreements with our customers. At any given time, we have orders for products that have not been shipped and for services that have not yet been performed for various reasons. Because of industry practice that allows customers to cancel or change orders with limited advance notice prior to shipment or performance, as well as our own history of allowing such changes and cancellations, we do not consider this backlog to be firm.Competition     Competition in the markets for our infrastructure and SLT products is intense.      Infrastructure Business. In the network infrastructure business, Cisco Systems has historically been the dominant player in the market. However, other companies such as Alcatel-Lucent, Ericsson, Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd., and Nortel Networks Corporation, are providing competitive products in the marketplace.     Many of our current and potential competitors, such as Cisco, Alcatel-Lucent, Huawei and Nortel have significantly broader product lines than we do and may bundle their products with other networking products in a manner that may discourage customers from purchasing our products. In addition, consolidation among competitors, or the acquisition of our partners and resellers by competitors, can increase the competitive pressure faced by us. For example, in 2006 Alcatel combined with Lucent Technologies, Inc. and Ericsson acquired Redback Networks. Also, many of our current and potential competitors have greater name recognition and more extensive customer bases that could be leveraged. Increased competition could result in price reductions, fewer customer orders, reduced gross margins and loss of market share, any of which could seriously harm our operating results.     Several companies also provide solutions that can substitute for some uses of routers. For example, high bandwidth Asynchronous Transfer Mode (“ATM”) switches are used in the core of certain major backbone service providers. ATM switches can carry a variety of traffic types, including voice, video and data, using fixed, 53 byte cells. Companies that use ATM switches are enhancing their products with new software technologies such as Multi-Protocol Label Switching (“MPLS”), which can potentially simplify the task of mixing routers and switches in the same network. These substitutes can reduce the need for large numbers of routers.      SLT Business. In the market for SLT products, Cisco generally is our strongest competitor with its broad range of products. In addition, there are a number of other competitors for each of the product lines within SLT, including Checkpoint Software Technologies, Fortinet, Inc., F5 Networks, Inc., Nortel and Riverbed Technology, Inc. These additional competitors tend to be focused on single product line solutions and therefore are generally specialized and focused as competitors to our products. In addition, a number of public and private companies have announced plans for new products to address the same needs that our products address. We believe that our ability to compete with Cisco and others depends upon our ability to demonstrate that our products are superior in meeting the needs of our current and potential customers.     For both product groups we expect that, over time, large companies with significant resources, technical expertise, market experience, customer relationships and broad product lines, such as Cisco, Alcatel-Lucent, Huawei and Nortel, will introduce new products which are designed to compete more effectively in the market. There are also several other companies that claim to have products with greater capabilities than our products. Consolidation in this industry has begun, with one or more of these companies being acquired by large, established suppliers of network infrastructure products, and we believe it is likely to continue.     As a result, we expect to face increased competition in the future from larger companies with significantly more resources than we have. Although we believe that our technology and the purpose-built features of our products make them unique and will enable us to compete effectively with these companies, we cannot guarantee that we will be successful.Intellectual Property     Our success and ability to compete are substantially dependent upon our internally developed technology and know-how. Our engineering teams have significant expertise in ASIC design and we own all rights to the design of the ASICs, which form the core of many of our products. Our operating systems were developed internally and are protected by United States and other copyright laws.     While we rely on patent, copyright, trade secret and trademark law to protect our technology, we also believe that factors such as the technological and creative skills of our personnel, new product developments, frequent product enhancements and reliable productmaintenance are essential to establishing and maintaining a technology leadership position. There can be no assurance that others will not develop technologies that are similar or superior to our technology.     In addition, we integrate licensed third-party technology into certain of our products. From time to time, we may be required to license additional technology from third parties to develop new products or product enhancements. There can be no assurance that third-party licenses will be available or continue to be available to us on commercially reasonable terms. Our inability to maintain or re-license any third-party licenses required in our products or our inability to obtain third-party licenses necessary to develop new products and product enhancements could require us to obtain substitute technology of lower quality or performance standards or at a greater cost, any of which could harm our business, financial condition, and results of operations.     Our success will depend upon our ability to obtain necessary intellectual property rights and protect our intellectual property rights. We cannot be certain that patents will be issued on the patent applications that we have filed, or that we will be able to obtain the necessary intellectual property rights or those other parties will not contest our intellectual property rights.Employees     As of December 31, 2006, we had 4,833 full-time employees, 412 of whom were in general and administrative functions. We have not experienced any work stoppages and we consider our relations with our employees to be good. Competition for personnel in our industry is intense. We believe that our future success depends in part on our continued ability to hire, motivate and retain qualified personnel. We believe that we have been successful in recruiting qualified employees, but there is no assurance that we will continue to be successful in the future.     Our future performance depends in significant part upon the continued service of our key technical, sales and senior management personnel, none of whom is bound by an employment agreement requiring service for any defined period of time. The loss of the services of one or more of our key employees could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Our future success also depends on our continuing ability to attract, train and retain highly qualified technical, sales and managerial personnel. Competition for such personnel is intense, and there can be no assurance that we can retain our key personnel in the future.Executive Officers of the Registrant     The following sets forth certain information regarding our executive officers as of February 1, 2007.               NAME   AGE   POSITION Scott Kriens     49     Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Board Pradeep Sindhu     54     Chief Technical Officer and Vice Chairman of the Board Robert R.B. Dykes     57     Executive Vice President, Business Operations and Chief Financial Officer Stephen Elop     43     Chief Operating Officer Edward Minshull     48     Executive Vice President, Field Operations Kim Perdikou     49     Executive Vice President, Infrastructure Products Group and General             Manager, Service Provider Business Team Robert Sturgeon     45     Executive Vice President, Service Layer Technology Group and General             Manager, Enterprise Business Team      SCOTT KRIENS has served as Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the board of directors of Juniper Networks since October 1996. From April 1986 to January 1996, Mr. Kriens served as Vice President of Sales and Vice President of Operations at StrataCom, Inc., a telecommunications equipment company, which he co-founded in 1986. Mr. Kriens received a B.A. in Economics from California State University, Hayward. Mr. Kriens also serves on the board of directors of Equinix, Inc. and Verisign, Inc.     PRADEEP SINDHU co-founded Juniper Networks in February 1996 and served as Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the board of directors until September 1996. Since then, Dr. Sindhu has served as Vice Chairman of the board of directors and Chief Technical Officer of Juniper Networks. From September 1984 to February 1991, Dr. Sindhu worked as a Member of the Research Staff, and from March 1987 to February 1996, as the Principal Scientist, and from February 1994 to February 1996, as Distinguished Engineer at the Computer Science Lab, Xerox Corporation, Palo Alto Research Center, a technology research center. Dr. Sindhu holds a B.S.E.E. from the Indian Institute of Technology in Kanpur, an M.S.E.E. from the University of Hawaii and a Masters in Computer Science and Ph.D. in Computer Science from Carnegie-Mellon University.     ROBERT R.B. DYKES joined Juniper Networks in January 2005 from Flextronics where he was Chief Financial Officer and President, Systems Group, from February 1997 to December 2004. Prior to that, Mr. Dykes was Executive Vice President, Worldwide Operations and Chief Financial Officer of Symantec Corporation from October 1988 to February 1997. Mr. Dykes also held Chief Financial Officer roles at industrial robots manufacturer, Adept Technology, and at disc drive controller manufacturer, Xebec. He also held senior financial management positions at Ford Motor Company. Mr. Dykes holds a Bachelor of Commerce in Administration degree from Victoria University, Wellington, New Zealand.     STEPHEN ELOP joined Juniper Networks in January 2007 from Adobe Systems where he served the role of President, Worldwide Field Operations. Mr. Elop joined Adobe Systems in December 2005 when it acquired Macromedia Inc. where he was President and CEO. During his tenure at Macromedia from March 1998 to December 2005, Mr. Elop had also held various senior management positions including COO, Executive Vice President of Worldwide Field Operations. Mr. Elop held a number of Chief Information Officer and executive positions prior to Macromedia. Mr. Elop holds a Bachelor degree in Computer Engineering and Management from McMaster University, Hamilton, in Ontario, Canada.     EDWARD MINSHULL joined Juniper Networks in August 2001 as Vice President, EMEA Sales and served in that role until January 2006 when he assumed the role of Executive Vice President, Worldwide Field Operations. From May 2000 to June 2001, Mr. Minshull was at Alcatel where he served as President of Alcatel Northern Europe and from May 1999 to May 2000 Mr. Minshull was at Newbridge Networks where he served as President of the Americas. Mr. Minshull holds a Bachelor of Arts degree in Business Studies from the University of North Staffordshire, England, U.K.     KIM PERDIKOU joined Juniper Networks in August 2000 as Chief Information Officer and served in that role until January 2006 when she assumed the role as the Executive Vice President and General Manager of the Infrastructure Products Group. Prior to Juniper Networks, Ms. Perdikou served as Chief Information Officer at from June 1999 to August 2000, and held the position of Vice President, Global Networks, at Reader’s Digest from March 1992 to April 1998, as well as leadership positions at Knight Ridder from June 1999 to August 2000, and Dun & Bradstreet from August 1989 to March 1992. Ms. Perdikou holds a B.S. in Computing Science with Operational Research from Paisley University, Paisley, Scotland, a Post-Graduate in Education degree from Jordanhill College, Glasgow, Scotland, and a Masters in Information Systems from Pace University, New York.     ROBERT STURGEON joined Juniper Networks in December 2001 as Vice President, Worldwide Customer Serv