M&F BANCORP INC /NC/ (MFBP) - Description of business

Company Description
” and Item 6: “Management’s Discussion and Analysis.” These statements relate to, among other things, expectations concerning loan demand, growth and performance, simulated changes in interest rates and the adequacy of our allowance for loan losses. These statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors that may cause our actual results, performance or achievements to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by the forward-looking statements. Actual results may differ materially from those expressed or implied as a result of certain risks and uncertainties, including, but not limited to, changes in political and economic conditions, interest rate fluctuations, competitive product and pricing pressures within our markets, equity and fixed income market fluctuations, personal and corporate customers’ bankruptcies, inflation, acquisitions and integrations of acquired businesses, technological changes, changes in law and regulations, changes in fiscal, monetary, regulatory and tax policies, monetary fluctuations, success in gaining regulatory approvals when required, as well as, other risks and uncertainties reported from time to time in our filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “SEC”). Forward-looking statements and factors that may cause actual results to differ materially are also discussed at the beginning of Item 6: “Management’s Discussion and Analysis.” Broadly speaking, forward-looking statements include:   •   projections of the Company’s revenues, income, earnings per share, capital expenditures, dividends, capital structure or other financial items;   •   descriptions of plans or objectives of the Company’s management for future operations, products or services;   •   forecasts of the Company’s future economic performance; and   •   descriptions of assumptions underlying or relating to any of the foregoing. The Company may make forward-looking statements discussing management’s expectations about:   •   future credit losses and nonperforming assets;   •   the impact of new accounting standards;   •   future short-term and long-term interest rate levels and their impact on the Company’s net interest margin, net income, liquidity and capital; and   •   future capital expenditures. Forward-looking statements discuss matters that are not historical facts. Because they discuss future events or conditions, forward-looking statements often include words such as “anticipate,” “might,” “believe,” “estimate,” “expect,” “plan,” “could,” “may,” “should,” “will,” “would, “ or similar expressions. Do not unduly rely on forward-looking statements. They detail management’s expectations about the future and are not guarantees. Forward-looking statements speak only as of the date they are made, and management may not update them to reflect changes that occur after the date the statements are made. M&F BANCORP, INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARY PART I ITEM 1. DESCRIPTION OF BUSINESS GENERAL Based in Durham, North Carolina (“NC”), M&F Bancorp, Inc. (the “Company”) is the holding company for Mechanics and Farmers Bank (the “Bank”), a state chartered commercial bank that was organized in 1907 and began operations in 1908. The Company, established in 1999, is a bank holding company, registered with the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (the “Federal Reserve”) under the Bank Holding Company Act of 1956, as amended (the “BHCA”). The Company’s sole activity currently consists of owning the Bank. The Company’s principal source of income is any dividends, which are declared and paid by the Bank on its capital stock. The Company uses such income to pay dividends to shareholders and cover expenses. As a NC-chartered bank, the Bank is subject to examination and regulation by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (the “FDIC”) and the Commissioner of Banks, NC Department of Commerce (the “Commissioner”). The Bank is further subject to certain regulations of the Federal Reserve, including governing reserves required to be maintained against deposits and other matters. The business and regulation of the Company and the Bank are also subject to legislative changes from time to time. See “-Supervision and Regulation” for additional discussion. The Bank provides a broad range of financial products and services through nine offices located in the NC markets below: Market    Number ofBranches Durham    3 Raleigh    2 Charlotte    3 Winston-Salem    1 GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF MARKET AREA The Bank has three offices in Durham, NC, two offices in Raleigh, NC, three offices in Charlotte, NC, and one office in Winston-Salem, NC. All offices are located in metropolitan areas with employment spread primarily among service, manufacturing and governmental activities. All offices are located in areas of high competition among financial service providers. As of June 30, 2005, based on the FDIC Summary of Deposit Data: (i) Durham had 19 commercial banks and savings associations, and the Bank ranked seventh in deposit size; (ii) Raleigh had 14 commercial banks and savings associations, and the Bank ranked 11th in deposit size; (iii) the Charlotte metropolitan area had 19 commercial banks and savings associations, and the Bank ranked 14th in deposit size: and (iv) Winston-Salem had 16 commercial banks and savings associations, and the Bank ranked 11th in deposit size. LENDING ACTIVITIES General. The Bank’s primary source of revenue is interest and fee income from its lending activities, consisting primarily of automobile, home equity, home improvement, personal, residential mortgage, commercial real estate, construction and commercial loans. The Bank also offers both personal and commercial overdraft protection in connection with its checking accounts. As of December 31, 2005, approximately 94.47% of the Bank’s loan portfolio was secured by real property, 5.45% was secured by personal property, and less than one percent was unsecured. On December 31, 2005, the largest amount the Bank had outstanding to any one borrower and its affiliates was approximately $3.0 million. In addition to interest earned on loans, the Bank receives fees in connection with loan originations, loan modifications, late payments, loan assumptions and other miscellaneous services. Loan Portfolio Composition. The Bank’s consolidated gross loan portfolio totaled approximately $168.6 million at December 31, 2005 representing 68.59% of the Bank’s total assets. At December 31, 2005, approximately 39.65% of the Bank’s gross loan portfolio was composed of adjustable rate loans, and approximately 60.35% of the Bank’s gross loan portfolio was composed of fixed rate loans. At December 31, 2005, approximately $5.13 million, or 3.04%, of the Bank’s gross loan portfolio was composed of consumer loans. On such date, approximately $4.1 million, or 2.41%, of the Bank’s gross loan portfolio was composed of commercial loans, approximately $159.3 million, or 94.47%, consisted of real estate loans and the remaining .08% consisted of other loans. M&F BANCORP, INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARY Origination, Purchase and Sale of Loans. Residential mortgage loans generally are originated in conformity with purchase requirements of the Federal National Mortgage Association. Accordingly, the Bank believes such loans are saleable in the secondary market. The Bank did not purchase, nor did it sell any loans in fiscal year 2005. In September 2004, the Bank sold $3.3 million in residential mortgages in the secondary market for gains of approximately $110,000. The Bank does not originate loans for the purpose of sale. Asset Classification. Applicable regulations require each insured institution to “classify” its own assets on a regular basis. In addition, in connection with examinations of financial institutions, regulatory examiners have authority to identify problem assets and, if appropriate, classify them. Problem assets are classified as “substandard,” “doubtful” or “loss,” depending on the presence of certain characteristics as discussed below. An asset is considered “substandard” if not adequately protected by the current net worth and paying capacity of the obligor or the collateral pledged, if any. “Substandard” assets include those characterized by the “distinct possibility” that the insured institution will sustain “some loss” if the deficiencies are not corrected. Assets classified as “doubtful” have all of the weaknesses inherent in those classified “substandard” with the added characteristic that the weaknesses present make “collection or liquidation in full,” because of currently existing facts, conditions, and values, “highly questionable and improbable.” Assets classified “loss” are those considered “uncollectible” and of such little value that their continuance as assets without the establishment of a loss reserve is not warranted. In 2005, the Board of Directors of the Bank approved a new credit classification system to evaluate the risks inherent in the Bank’s loan portfolio. Management has begun to conduct an evaluation of the loan portfolio based on this new classification system. Management will take the results of that evaluation into consideration in determining future provisions to the allowance for loan losses. Management does not expect this approach will have a material impact on the financial results or on the amount included in the allowance for loan losses. As of December 31, 2005, the Bank had approximately $12.0 million of loans classified as “substandard,” no loans classified as “doubtful,” and no loans classified as “loss.”Total classified assets as of December 31, 2005 and 2004 were approximately $16.3 million and $15.9 million, respectively. In connection with the filing of periodic reports with regulatory agencies, the Bank reports any assets that possess credit deficiencies or potential weaknesses deserving close attention by management. These assets may be considered “special mention” assets and do not yet warrant adverse classification. At December 31, 2005, the Bank had approximately $4.3 million of loans in the “special mention” category, as compared to $9.0 million at December 31, 2004. When an insured institution classifies problem assets as either substandard or doubtful, it is required to establish general allowances for loan losses in an amount deemed prudent by management. These allowances represent loss allowances that have been established to recognize the inherent risks associated with lending activities and the risks associated with particular problem assets. When an insured institution classifies problem assets as “loss,” it charges off the balance of the asset. The Bank’s determination as to the classification of its assets and the amount of its valuation allowances is subject to review by the FDIC and the Commissioner, which can order the establishment of additional loss allowances. ALLOWANCE FOR LOAN LOSSES In originating loans, the Bank recognizes that credit losses will be experienced and that the risk of loss will vary with, among other things, the type of loan being made, the creditworthiness of the borrower over the term of the loan and, in the case of a secured loan, the quality of the security for the loan as well as general economic conditions. It is management’s policy to maintain an adequate allowance for loan losses based on, among other things, the Bank’s historical loan loss experience, evaluation of economic conditions and regular review of delinquencies and loan portfolio quality. Specific allowances are provided for individual loans when ultimate collection is considered questionable by management after reviewing the current status of loans, which are contractually past due and considering the net realizable value of the security for the loans. Management actively monitors the Bank’s asset quality, charges off loans against the allowance for loan losses when appropriate and provides specific loss reserves when necessary. Although management believes it uses the best information available to make determinations with respect to the allowance for loan losses, future adjustments may be necessary if economic conditions differ substantially from the economic conditions in the assumptions used in making the initial determinations. M&F BANCORP, INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARY INVESTMENTS Interest income from investment securities generally provides a significant source of income to the Bank. In addition, the Bank receives interest income from interest on overnight deposits with other financial institutions. On December 31, 2005, the Bank’s investment securities portfolio totaled approximately $30.8 million and consisted of U.S. Treasury and U.S. Government agency securities, corporate bonds, obligations of states and political subdivisions and equity securities. The Bank’s investment strategy is intended, among other things, to (i) provide and maintain liquidity, (ii) maintain a balance of high quality, diversified investments to minimize risk, (iii) maximize returns, and (iv) manage interest rate risk. In terms of priorities, safety is considered more important than liquidity or return on investment. The Bank does not engage in hedging activities. DEPOSITS AND BORROWINGS General . Deposits are the primary source of the Bank’s funds for lending and other investment purposes. In addition to deposits, the Bank derives funds from loan principal repayments, interest payments, investment income, interest from its Federal funds deposits, and otherwise from its operations. Loan repayments are a relatively stable source of funds while deposit inflows and outflows may be significantly influenced by general interest rates and money market conditions. Borrowings may be used on a short-term basis to compensate for reductions in the availability of funds from other sources. They may also be used on a longer-term basis for general business purposes. Deposits. In recent years, the Bank has experienced consistent deposit growth. On December 31, 2005 and 2004, the Bank’s deposits totaled approximately $203.8 million and $189.1 million, respectively. During 2005, approximately $24.2 million of growth was in certificates of deposits primarily obtained through an internet rate service and with institutional customers. The majority of these deposits have a one-year term and reprice at market rates upon maturity. The Bank attracts both short-term and long-term deposits from the general public by offering a variety of accounts and rates. The Bank offers savings accounts, interest-bearing and noninterest-bearing checking accounts, and fixed interest rate certificates with varying maturities. All deposit flows are greatly influenced by economic conditions, the general level of interest rates, competition and other factors. The Bank’s deposits traditionally have been obtained primarily from its market areas. The Bank utilizes traditional marketing methods to attract new customers and deposits, including print media advertising and direct mailings. The Bank does not advertise for deposits outside of its local market areas. The Bank participates in a national listing service, QwickRate ® , to offer deposits to other financial institutions and it has one brokered certificate of deposit. COMPETITION The Bank faces strong competition in both attracting deposits and making loans. Its most direct competition for deposits has historically come from savings institutions, credit unions and other commercial banks located in its primary market areas, including large financial institutions, which have greater financial and marketing resources available to them. The Bank has also recently faced additional significant competition for investors’ funds from short-term money market securities and other corporate and government securities. The ability of the Bank to attract and retain deposits depends on its ability generally to provide a rate of return, liquidity and risk comparable to that offered by competing investment opportunities. As of June 30, 2005 based the FDIC Summary of Deposits Report, the Bank’s market share of the deposits in Durham, NC was approximately 1.76%, and less than one percent in Raleigh, Charlotte and Winston-Salem, NC. EMPLOYEES As of December 31, 2005, the Company and the Bank had a total of 84 employees, including 81 full-time equivalent employees. AVAILABLE INFORMATION The Company makes its Annual Report on Form 10-KSB, Quarterly Reports on Form 10-QSB, Current Reports on Form 8-K and amendments to those reports available free of charge on its internet website www.mfbonline.com , as soon as reasonably practicable after the reports are electronically filed with the SEC. Any materials that the Company files with the SEC may be read and/or copied at the SEC’s Public Reference Room at 450 Fifth Street, NW, Washington, DC 20549. Public information may be obtained by calling the SEC at 1-800-SEC-0330. These filings are also accessible on the SEC’s website at www.sec.gov . Additionally, the Company’s corporate governance policies, including the charters of the Audit, Compensation, and Corporate Governance and Nominating committees; and its Codes of Ethics may also be found under the “Investor Relations“ section of the Company’s website. The Company elects to disclose any amendments to or waivers of any provisions of its Code of Ethics applicable to its principal executive officers and senior financial officers on its website. A written copy of the foregoing corporate governance policies is available upon written request to the Company. SUPERVISION AND REGULATION Bank holding companies and commercial banks are subject to extensive federal and state governmental regulation and supervision . The following is a brief summary of some of the basic statutes and regulations that apply to the Company and Bank, but it is not a complete discussion of all the laws that affect the Company’s and Bank’s business. Supervision, regulation and examination of the Company and the Bank by the regulatory agencies are intended primarily for the protection of depositors rather than shareholders of the Company . Statutes and regulations, which contain wide-ranging proposals for altering the structures, regulations, and competitive relationship of financial institutions are introduced regularly. The Company cannot predict whether or in what form any proposed statute or regulation will be adopted or the extent to which the business of the Company and the Bank may be affected by such statute or regulation. M&F BANCORP, INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARY The FDIC and the Commissioner completed an examination during 2005. As a result of this examination, the Bank agreed to, among other things, improve loan asset quality, underwriting and credit administration, increase liquidity, review all overhead costs, continually to evaluate the allowance for loan losses due to increases in the level of classified loans and more closely monitor capital ratios and requirements. Management has reported to the regulators throughout the period following the examination, providing progress reports on each of the examiners’ recommendations. General . There are a number of obligations and restrictions imposed on bank holding companies and their depository institution subsidiaries by law and regulatory policy that are designed to minimize potential loss to the depositors of such depository institutions and the FDIC in the event the depository institution becomes in danger of, or in, default. For example, to avoid receivership of an insured depository institution subsidiary, a bank holding company is required to guarantee the compliance of any insured depository institution subsidiary that may become “undercapitalized” with the terms of any capital restoration plan filed by such subsidiary with its appropriate federal banking agency up to the lesser of (i) an amount equal to 5% of the bank’s total assets at the time the bank became undercapitalized or (ii) the amount which is necessary (or would have been necessary) to bring the bank into compliance with all acceptable capital standards as of the time the bank fails to comply with such capital restoration plan. The Company, as a registered bank holding company, is subject to the regulation and supervision of the Federal Reserve. Under a policy of the Federal Reserve with respect to bank holding company operations, a bank holding company is required to serve as a source of financial strength to its subsidiary depository institutions and to commit resources to support such institutions in circumstances where it might not do so absent such policy. The Federal Reserve under the BHCA also has the authority to require a bank holding company to terminate any activity or to relinquish control of a nonbank subsidiary (other than a nonbank subsidiary of a bank) upon the Federal Reserve’s determination that such activity or control constitutes a serious risk to the financial soundness and stability of any bank subsidiary of the bank holding company. In addition, insured depository institutions under common control are required to reimburse the FDIC for any loss suffered by its deposit insurance funds as a result of the default of a commonly controlled insured depository institution or for any assistance provided by the FDIC to a commonly controlled insured depository institution in danger of default. The FDIC may decline to enforce the cross-guarantee provisions if it determines that a waiver is in the best interests of the deposit insurance funds. The FDIC’s claim for damages is superior to claims of stockholders of the insured depository institution or its holding company but is subordinate to claims of depositors, secured creditors and holders of subordinated debt (other than affiliates) of the commonly controlled insured depository institutions. As a result of the Company’s ownership of the Bank, the Company is also registered under the bank holding company laws of NC. Accordingly, the Company is also subject to regulation and supervision by the Commissioner. Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act was signed into law in 2002 and became some of the most sweeping federal legislation addressing accounting, corporate governance and disclosure issues. The impact of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act has been wide-ranging as it applies to all public companies and imposes significant new requirements for public company governance and disclosure requirements. Some of the provisions of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act became effective immediately while other provisions have subsequently been implemented or will be implemented in the future. In general, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act mandated important new corporate governance and financial reporting requirements intended to enhance the accuracy and transparency of public companies’ reported financial results. It established new responsibilities for corporate chief executive officers, chief financial officers and audit committees in the financial reporting process and created a new regulatory body to oversee auditors of public companies. It backed these requirements with new Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) enforcement tools, increased criminal penalties for federal mail, wire and securities fraud, and created new criminal penalties for document and record destruction in connection with federal investigations. It also increased the opportunity for more private litigation by lengthening the statute of limitations for securities fraud claims and providing new federal corporate whistleblower protection. The economic and operational effects of this legislation on public companies, including the Company, have been and will continue to be significant in terms of the time, resources and costs associated with complying with its requirements. Because the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, for the most part, applies equally to larger and smaller public companies, we will be presented with additional challenges as a smaller financial institution seeking to compete with larger financial institutions in our market. M&F BANCORP, INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARY USA Patriot Act. The USA Patriot Act of 2001 was enacted in response to the terrorist attacks that occurred in New York, Pennsylvania and Washington, D.C. on September 11, 2001. The Act was intended to strengthen the ability of U.S. law enforcement and the intelligence community to work cohesively to combat terrorism on a variety of fronts. The impact of the Act on financial institutions of all kinds is significant and wide ranging. The Act contained sweeping anti-money laundering and financial transparency laws and requires various regulations, including standards for verifying customer identification at account opening, and rules to promote cooperation among financial institutions, regulators, and law enforcement entities in identifying parties that may be involved in terrorism or money laundering. The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act. The federal Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act, enacted in 1999 (the “GLB Act”), dramatically changed various federal laws governing the banking, securities and insurance industries. The GLB Act has expanded opportunities for banks and bank holding companies to provide services and engage in other revenue-generating activities that previously were prohibited to them. However, this expanded authority also presents the Company with new challenges as its larger competitors are able to expand their services and products into areas that are not feasible for smaller, community oriented financial institutions. The GLB Act has had a significant economic impact on the banking industry and on competitive conditions in the financial services industry generally. Capital Adequacy Guidelines for Holding Companies . The Federal Reserve has adopted capital adequacy guidelines for bank holding companies and banks that are members of the Federal Reserve system and have consolidated assets of $150.0 million or more. Bank holding companies subject to the Federal Reserve’s capital adequacy guidelines are required to comply with the Federal Reserve’s risk-based capital guidelines. Under these regulations, the minimum ratio of total capital to risk-weighted assets is 8%. At least half of the total capital is required to be “Tier I capital,” principally consisting of common stockholders’ equity, noncumulative perpetual preferred stock, and a limited amount of cumulative perpetual preferred stock, less certain goodwill items. The remainder (“Tier II capital”) may consist of a limited amount of subordinated debt, certain hybrid capital instruments and other debt securities, perpetual preferred stock, and a limited amount of the general loan loss allowance. In addition to the risk-based capital guidelines, the Federal Reserve has adopted a minimum Tier I capital (leverage) ratio, under which a bank holding company must maintain a minimum level of Tier I capital to average total consolidated assets of at least 3% in the case of a bank holding company which has the highest regulatory examination rating and is not contemplating significant growth or expansion. All other bank holding companies are expected to maintain a Tier I capital (leverage) ratio of at least 1% to 2% above the stated minimum. The Company exceeded all applicable capital requirements as of December 31, 2005. Capital Requirements for the Bank. The Bank, as a NC commercial bank, is required to maintain a surplus account equal to 50% or more of its paid-in capital stock. As a NC chartered, FDIC-insured commercial bank, which is not a member of the Federal Reserve System, the Bank is also subject to capital requirements imposed by the FDIC. Under the FDIC’s regulations, state nonmember banks that (a) receive the highest rating during the examination process and (b) are not anticipating or experiencing any significant growth, are required to maintain a minimum leverage ratio of 3% of total consolidated assets; all other banks are required to maintain a minimum ratio of 1% or 2% above the stated minimum, with a minimum leverage ratio of not less than 4%. The Bank exceeded all applicable capital requirements as of December 31, 2005. Dividend and Repurchase Limitations . The Company must obtain Federal Reserve approval prior to repurchasing its common stock for consideration in excess of 10% of its net worth during any twelve-month period unless the Company (i) both before and after the redemption satisfies capital requirements for “well capitalized” state member banks; (ii) received a one or two rating in its last examination; and (iii) is not the subject of any unresolved supervisory issues. Although the payment of dividends and repurchase of stock by the Company are subject to certain requirements and limitations of NC corporate law, except as set forth in the next paragraph, neither the Commissioner nor the FDIC have promulgated any regulations specifically limiting the right of the Company to pay dividends and repurchase shares. However, the ability of the Company to pay dividends or repurchase shares is entirely dependent upon the Company’s receipt of dividends from the Bank. NC commercial banks, such as the Bank, are subject to legal limitations on the amounts of dividends they are permitted to pay. The Bank may pay dividends from undivided profits, which are determined by deducting and charging certain items against actual profits, including any contributions to surplus required by NC law. In addition, an insured depository institution, such as the Bank, is prohibited from making capital distributions, including the payment of dividends, if, after making such distribution, the institution would become “undercapitalized” (as such term is defined in the applicable law and regulations). FDIC Insurance Assessments. The Bank is subject to insurance assessments imposed by the FDIC. Under current law, the insurance assessment to be paid by members of the Bank Insurance Fund, such as the Bank, shall be as specified in a schedule required to be issued by the FDIC. FDIC assessments for deposit insurance range from zero to 27 basis points per $100 of insured deposits, depending on the institution’s capital position and other supervisory factors. M&F BANCORP, INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARY Federal Home Loan Bank System. The Federal Home Loan Bank (“FHLB”) system provides a central credit facility for member institutions. In December 2004, the FHLB of Atlanta implemented a new capital plan. As a member of the FHLB of Atlanta and under the new capital plan, the Bank is required to own capital stock in the FHLB of Atlanta in an amount at least equal to 0.20% (or 20 basis points) of the Bank’s total assets at the end of each calendar year, plus 4.5% of its outstanding advances (borrowings) from the FHLB of Atlanta under the new activity-based stock ownership requirement. On December 31, 2005, the Bank was in compliance with this requirement. Community Reinvestment. Under the Community Reinvestment Act (“CRA”), as implemented by regulations of the FDIC, an insured institution has a continuing and affirmative obligation consistent with its safe and sound operation to help meet the credit needs of its entire community, including low and moderate-income neighborhoods. The CRA does not establish specific lending requirements or programs for financial institutions, nor does it limit an institution’s discretion to develop, consistent with the CRA, the types of products and services that it believes are best suited to its particular community. The CRA requires the federal banking regulators, in connection with their examinations of insured institutions, to assess the institutions’ records of meeting the credit needs of their communities, using the ratings of “outstanding”, “satisfactory”, “needs to improve”, or “substantial noncompliance”, and to take that record into account in its evaluation of certain applications by those institutions. All institutions are required to make public disclosure of their CRA performance ratings. The Bank received an “outstanding” rating in its last CRA examination, which was conducted during October 2003. Prompt Corrective Action. The FDIC has broad powers to take corrective action to resolve the problems of insured depository institutions. The extent of these powers will depend upon whether the institution in question is “well capitalized”, “adequately capitalized”, “undercapitalized”, “significantly undercapitalized”, or “critically undercapitalized”. Under the regulations, an institution is considered “well capitalized” if it has (i) a total risk-based capital ratio of 10% or greater, (ii) a Tier I risk-based capital ratio of 6% or greater, (iii) a leverage ratio of 5% or greater and (iv) is not subject to any order or written directive to meet and maintain a specific capital level for any capital measure. An “adequately capitalized” institution is defined as one that has (i) a total risk-based capital ratio of 8% or greater, (ii) a Tier I risk-based capital ratio of 4% or greater and (iii) a leverage ratio of 4% or greater (or 3% or greater in the case of an institution with the highest examination rating). An institution is considered “undercapitalized” if it has (i) a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 8%, (ii) a Tier I risk-based capital ratio of less than 4% or (iii) a leverage ratio of less than 4% (or 3% in the case of an institution with the highest examination rating); An institution is considered “significantly undercapitalized” if the institution has (i) a total risk-based capital ratio of less than 6%, (ii) a Tier I risk-based capital ratio of less than 3% or (iii) a leverage ratio of less than 3% and (c) “critically undercapitalized” if the institution has a ratio of tangible equity to total assets equal to or less than 2%. At December 31, 2005, the Company was classified as “well capitalized”. Changes in Control. The BHCA prohibits the Company from acquiring direct or indirect control of more than 5% of the outstanding voting stock or substantially all of the assets of any bank or savings bank or merging or consolidating with another bank holding company or savings bank holding company without prior approval of the Federal Reserve. Similarly, Federal Reserve approval (or, in certain cases, non-disapproval) must be obtained prior to any person acquiring control of the Company. Control is conclusively presumed to exist if, among other things, a person acquires more than 25% of any class of voting stock of the Company or controls in any manner the election of a majority of the directors of the Company. Control is presumed to exist if a person acquires more than 10% of any class of voting stock and the stock is registered under Section 12 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 (the “Exchange Act”) or the acquiror will be the largest shareholder after the acquisition. Federal Securities Law . The Company has registered its common stock with the SEC pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Exchange Act. As a result of that registration, the proxy and tender offer rules, insider trading reporting requirements, annual and periodic reporting and other requirements of the Exchange Act are applicable to the Company. Restrictions on Transactions with Affiliates. The Bank is subject to the provisions of Section 23A of the Federal Reserve Act. Section 23A places limits on the amount of:   •   a bank’s loans or extensions of credit to, or investment in, its affiliates;   •   assets a bank may purchase from affiliates, except for real and personal property exempted by the Federal Reserve Board;   •   the amount of loans or extensions of credit by a bank to third parties which are collateralized by the securities or obligations of the bank’s affiliates; and   •   a bank’s guarantee, acceptance or letter of credit issued on behalf of one of its affiliates. The total amount of the above transactions is limited in amount, as to any one affiliate, to 10% of a bank’s capital and surplus and, as to all affiliates combined, to 20% of a bank’s capital and surplus. In addition to the limitation on the amount of these transactions, each of the above transactions must also meet specified collateral requirements. The Bank also must comply with other provisions designed to avoid the taking of low-quality assets from an affiliate. M&F BANCORP, INCORPORATED AND SUBSIDIARY The Bank also is subject to the provisions of Section 23B of the Federal Reserve Act which, among other things, prohibits a bank from engaging in the above transactions with its affiliates unless the transactions are on terms substantially the same, or at least as favorable to the bank or its subsidiaries, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with nonaffiliated companies. Federal law places restrictions on the Bank’s ability to extend credit to its executive officers, directors, principal shareholders and their related interests. These extensions of credit (1) must be made on substantially the same terms, including interest rates and collateral, as those prevailing at the time for comparable transactions with unrelated third parties, and (2) must not involve more than the normal risk of repayment or present other unfavorable features. Other. The federal banking agencies, including the FDIC, have developed joint regulations requiring annual examinations of all insured depository institutions by the appropriate federal banking agency, with some exceptions for small, well-capitalized institutions and state-chartered institutions examined by state regulators, and establishing operational and managerial, asset quality, earnings and stock valuation standards for insured depository institutions, as well as compensation standards when such compensation would endanger the insured depository institution or would constitute an unsafe practice. In addition, the Bank is subject to various other state and federal laws and regulations, including state usury laws, laws relating to fiduciaries, consumer credit and equal credit, fair credit reporting laws and laws relating to branch banking. The Bank does not believe that these regulations have had or will have a material adverse effect on its current operations.