Palomar Medical Technologies, Inc. (PMTI) - Description of business
1996 we introduced the first high powered laser hair removal systemo
1997 we obtained FDA clearance for the first high powered laser hair removal systemo
1997 we were first to obtain FDA clearance for high power diode laser systemo
1998 we were the first to obtain FDA clearance for permanent hair reductiono
1999 we were first to obtain FDA clearance for sub-zero cooled laser systemo
2000 we were first to obtain FDA clearance for a super long pulse laser systemo
2001 we introduced the cost effective and upgradeable Lux Platformo
2001 we introduced the Q-Yag5 system for tattoo and pigmented lesion removalo
2003 we signed a Development and License Agreement with The Gillette Company to complete development and commercialize a patented home-use, light based hair removal device for womeno
2004 we introduced the StarLux®Pulsed Light and Laser system which incorporates a single power supply system capable of operating both lasers and lampso
2004 we were awarded a research contract by the United States Department of the Army to develop a light based self-treatment device for Pseudofolliculitis Barbaeo
2004 we signed a Development and License Agreement with Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc., a Johnson & Johnson company (NYSE: JNJ), to develop, clinically test and potentially commercialize home-use, light based devices for (i) reducing or reshaping body fat including cellulite; (ii) reducing appearance of skin aging; and (iii) reducing or preventing acneo
2005 we were awarded additional funding and a one year extension for our research contract with the United States Department of the Army to develop a light based self-treatment device for Pseudofolliculitis Barbaeo
2005 we began shipping the Lux 1064 handpiece for use with the StarLux System for removal of leg veins and other conditionso
2005 we began shipping the Lux IR Fractional Infrared handpiece for use with the StarLux System for deep heating for pain relief and in 2006 we received FDA clearance for soft tissue coagulationo
2006 we were awarded additional funding and a five month extension for our research contract with the United States Department of the Army to develop a light based self-treatment device for Pseudofolliculitis Barbaeo
2006 we began shipping the Lux1540 Fractional Laser handpiece for use with the StarLux System for soft tissue coagulation and we are seeking FDA clearance for skin resurfacingo
2006 we received a 510(k) over-the-counter (OTC) clearance from the FDA for a new, patented, home use, light-based hair removal deviceo
2007 we introduced the StarLux®500 Laser and Pulsed Light System featuring 70% more power and increased functionality and speed of treatmento
2007 we introduced four new handpieces including:o
Lux1540-Z Fractional Laser handpiece allowing control of micro-beam density and focal depth as well as spot sizeo
LuxDeepIR Fractional handpiece, the second generation of the LuxIR Fractional handpiece, including advanced cooling, contact sensors and longer pulse durationo
LuxW Pulsed Light handpiece optimized for treatment of very light pigmented lesions, ando
LuxYs Pulsed Light handpiece for permanent reduction of lighter, finer hairo
2007 we expanded our Development and License Agreement with Gillette to allow for the development of an additional home-use, light based hair removal device for women
We are continuously researching, developing and testing new and exciting innovations for a variety of cosmetic applications, such as:o
skin rejuvenation, including tone and textureo
skin tightening, including laxity and liftingo
pigmented lesion removal, such as sun and age spots, freckles and melasmao
vascular lesion removal, such as spider veins, cherry angiomas and rosaceao
leg vein removalo
scars, including acne scars, stretch marks and wartso
fat reduction, including cellulite
We were organized in 1987 to design, manufacture, market and sell lasers and other light based products and related disposable items and accessories for use in medical and cosmetic procedures. In December 1992, we filed our initial public offering. Subsequently, we pursued an acquisition program, acquiring companies in our core laser business as well as others, principally in the electronics industry, in order to spread risk and bolster operating assets. By the beginning of 1997, we had more than a dozen subsidiaries. At the same time, having obtained FDA clearance to market our EpiLaser® ruby laser hair removal system in March 1997, we were well positioned to focus on what we believed was the most promising product in our core laser business. Hence, under the direction of a new board and management team, we undertook a program in 1997, which was completed in May of 1998, of exiting from all non-core businesses and investments and focusing only on those businesses which we believed held the greatest promise for maximizing stockholder value. Our exclusive focus then became the use of lasers and other light based products in dermatology and cosmetic procedures.
In December 1997 and January 1998, respectively, we became the first company to receive FDA clearance for a diode laser for hair removal and for leg vein treatment, the LightSheer diode laser system manufactured by Star Medical Technologies, Inc., one of our former subsidiaries. The LightSheer was the first generation of high-powered diode lasers designed for hair removal, and like our EpiLaser and other prior hair removal products, the LightSheer incorporated technology protected by patents licensed exclusively to us from the General Hospital Corporation doing business as Massachusetts General Hospital.
On December 7, 1998, we entered into an Agreement with Coherent, Inc. (Coherent Medical Group, a former subsidiary of Coherent, was subsequently sold to ESC Medical, now known as Lumenis, Inc. and hereinafter referred to as Lumenis) to sell all of the issued and outstanding common stock of our subsidiary, Star Medical Technologies, Inc. We completed the sale of Star Medical Technologies, Inc. to Lumenis on April 27, 1999.
On February 14, 2003, we entered into a Development and License Agreement with Gillette to complete development and commercialize a home-use, light based hair removal device for women. We believe that this device will be protected by multiple patents within our patent portfolio. On June 28, 2004, we announced with Gillette that we completed the initial phase of our agreement and that both parties would move into the next phase. In conjunction with entering this next phase, the parties amended the agreement to provide for additional development funding to further technical innovations. In September 2006, we announced that Gillette had made the decision to move into the next phase of our agreement. On December 8, 2006, we became the first company to receive a 510(k) over-the-counter (OTC) clearance from the FDA for a new, patented, home use, light-based hair removal device. OTC clearance allows the product to be marketed and sold directly to consumers without a prescription. Under our agreement, Gillette paid us $2.5 million following our receipt of the OTC clearance. In February 2007, we announced an amendment to our agreement with Gillette to include the development and commercialization of an additional light-based hair removal device for home use, and we also announced that we had executed an Amended and Restated Joint Development Agreement to incorporate other prior amendments and several new amendments to allow for more open collaboration through commercialization.
On February 18, 2004, we announced that we were awarded a $2.5 million research contract by the United States Department of the Army to develop a light based self-treatment device for Pseudofolliculitis Barbae, or PFB, commonly known as razor bumps. On October 25, 2005, we announced that we were awarded additional funding of $888,000 for a total of $3.4 million and a twelve month contract extension. On September 1, 2006, we were awarded additional funding of $440,000 for a total of $3.8 million and an additional five month extension until April 30, 2007.
On September 1, 2004 , we entered into a Development and License Agreement with Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc. to develop, clinically test and potentially commercialize home-use, light based devices for (i) reducing or reshaping body fat including cellulite; (ii) reducing appearance of skin aging; and (iii) reducing or preventing acne. We believe that these devices will be protected by multiple patents within our patent portfolio.
We have one operating subsidiary, Palomar Medical Products, Inc. located at our headquarters in Burlington, Massachusetts, which oversees the manufacture and sale of our lamp and laser based systems currently on the market. In addition, we are in the process of forming Palomar Medical Technologies BV located in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, which will market and distribute in Europe and the Middle East as well as provide certain services of our products for those areas.Market for Aesthetic Procedures
The market for light-based aesthetic procedures has seen significant growth over the past decade, particularly in the last several years. Many factors are likely responsible for this growth including the aging population of the United States and other industrialized nations along with a desire to look and feel younger and a rising discretionary income with which to pay for such procedures. Consumers often undergo aesthetic procedures to improve their self-image and self-esteem, or to appear competitive in an ever-younger workforce. Another important factor is the sophistication of the equipment for light-based aesthetic procedures. Technological advancements made to the equipment have improved safety, ease of use, efficacy, and cost which has in turn grown our customer base. Our traditional customers have been plastic surgeons and dermatologists. However, increased consumer demand and technological advancements as well as managed care and reimbursement restrictions in the United States and similar constraints outside the United States, have motivated non-traditional customers such as general practitioners, gynecologists, surgeons, and others to offer aesthetic procedures. Such procedures have the advantage of being provided on a fee-for-service basis. In addition, technological advances have reduced both treatment and recovery times and made a broader variety of treatments for different cosmetic issues possible, further increasing consumer demand.Business Strategy
With our unique focus on both the professional and consumer markets, we believe we are positioned to capitalize on the ever expanding market for improving personal appearance. Our strategy is three-fold: growth of our professional business, driving our technology into the mass consumer markets, and executing our intellectual property enforcement strategy.
Growth of Professional Business.Innovative Products. We grow our professional business by investing significant resources in research and development to allow us to continually introduce innovative, patented products. For example, in the second half of 2006, we began shipping the Lux 1540 fractional laser handpiece, and in March 2007, we began shipping the new StarLux 500 Laser and Pulsed Light System. We have led the industry in offering platforms that allow practitioners to grow their practice by adding handpieces for additional applications and by moving to higher power, more sophisticated systems. This strategy has been favorably received through the years by our customers allowing us to leverage our installed base. Expanding Practitioner Base. We believe that our professional business has further growth potential through non-traditional practitioners. In addition to our traditional base of plastic surgeons and dermatologists, we intend to continue to market and sell to other practitioners including general and family practitioners, gynecologists, surgeons, physicians offering cosmetic treatments in medi-spa facilities and others. Increasing International Presence. We are expanding our international presence which we believe will be a significant opportunity for us. We are in the process of opening an office in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, to oversee our marketing and distribution efforts in Europe and the Middle East and provide certain service for our products in these areas.
Driving Our Technology into Consumer Market. We direct significant resources toward driving our technology into the mass consumer markets, including with both The Gillette Company and Johnson & Johnson Consumer Companies, Inc.
Intellectual Property Enforcement. We are executing on our intellectual property enforcement strategy. We have a portfolio of patents in a number of areas. In the light-based hair removal area, we tested two patents against Cutera, Inc. in two different lawsuits which were successfully concluded in June 2006. Cutera admitted that their products infringe our patents and that the patents are both valid and enforceable. In addition, Cutera agreed to pay us royalties on past sales, interest on certain monies owed and $4 million to cover our legal costs over the entire litigation period. The total amount received from Cutera was $22 million. Cutera also agreed to pay us royalties on future sales of hair removal products. In October, we announced that Cynosure agreed to take a license to these same hair removal patents, paid us $10 million in back owed royalties, and agreed to pay us royalties on future sales of hair removal products. Two other competitors, Lumenis and Iridex, also pay us royalties on sales of hair removal products. In July and August 2006, we filed suit against Alma Lasers, Inc. and Candela Corporation, respectively, for infringement of these same hair removal patents. We are reviewing various strategies with additional parties, including granting additional licenses and further litigation, if necessary, which would seek money damages as well as injunctions. (For more information, see Item 3 Legal Proceedings.)
3Financial Information About Industry Segments
We conduct business in one industry segment, medical and cosmetic products and services.
We research, develop, manufacture, market, sell and service light based products used to perform procedures addressing medical and cosmetic concerns. We offer a comprehensive range of products based on proprietary technologies that include, but are not limited to:o
Removal of vascular lesions such as rosacea, spider veins, port wine stains and hemangiomaso
Removal of leg veinso
Removal of benign pigmented lesions such as age and sun spots, freckles and melasmao
Pseudofolliculitis Barbae or PFB treatmento
Treatment of red pigmentation in hypertrophic and keloid scarso
Treatment of verrucae, skin tags, seborrheic keratosiso
Skin tightening through soft tissue coagulationo
Scars, including acne scars, stretch marks and wartso
Soft tissue coagulationo
Other skin treatments
Market surveys report that the great majority of men and women in the United States, and many other parts of the world, employ one or more techniques to temporarily remove hair from various parts of the body, including waxing, depilatories, tweezing and shaving. Compared to these hair removal techniques, our light based hair removal processes provides significantly longer-term cosmetic improvement.
Lux Platform.With increasing market acceptance of light based treatments for new applications, we recognized the need for a cost effective platform that could expand with the needs of our customers. In 2001, we announced the first product with the Lux Platform: the EsteLux® Pulsed Light System. In March 2003, we introduced the higher priced MediLux Pulsed Light System with the same six handpieces, but also with higher power, faster repetition rate and a new snap-on connector for faster changes between handpieces. In February 2004, we enhanced the upgrade opportunities for our customers with the introduction of the StarLux® Pulsed Light and Laser System with increased power, a computer controlled touch screen, instant handpiece recognition, active contact cooling, and a long pulse Nd:YAG laser handpiece, the Lux1064. In February 2005, we introduced a new infrared handpiece, the LuxIR. In June 2006, we introduced and began shipping the Lux1540 Fractional Laser handpiece. In February 2007, we introduced the StarLux® 500 Pulsed Light and Laser System with 70% more power and increased functionality and speed of treatment as compared to the original StarLux System. Capable of achieving higher peak and average power for greater efficacy with increased contact cooling for added safety and comfort, the StarLux 500 offers customers faster treatment times, more flexibility and improved results. The StarLux 500 will support the same suite of existing StarLux handpieces, as well as four new handpieces, the LuxDeepIR handpiece, the Lux1540-Z handpiece, the LuxW handpiece and the LuxYs handpiece.
The Lux systems offer a suite of applications at less cost than competing systems. Customers can invest in their first Lux system with one handpiece then purchase additional handpieces as their practice grows and upgrade into a more powerful Lux system when ready. The Lux platform enables us to custom tailor products to fit almost any professional medical office or spa location and provide customers with the comfort that the system is able to grow with their practice.
In addition to being cost effective and upgradeable, the platform includes many technological advances. For example, the platform includes our Smooth Pulse technology, a safe and comfortable treatment that spreads power evenly over the entire pulse of light allowing us to provide optimal wavelengths for faster results in fewer treatments. By contrast, many competitive systems deliver a power spike at the beginning of each pulse which can cause injury at the most effective wavelengths. The Smooth Pulse technology extends the life of the light source. We sell replacement handpieces to existing customers providing a reoccurring revenue stream.
The Lux pulsed light handpieces combine the latest technology with simple, streamlined engineering that is both effective and economical. Long pulse widths and SpectruMax filtering provide increased safety and efficacy. Efficacy is further improved through our Photon Recycling process which increases the effective fluence by capturing light scattered out of the skin during treatments and redirecting it back into the treatment target. Offering one of the largest spot sizes in the market and high repetition rates allows for fast coverage which is especially important when removing hair from large areas such as legs and backs. A back or a pair of legs can be treated in approximately thirty minutes, and a smaller area, such as the underarms, in even less time. The systems simple operation opens its applications to a wider band of worldwide users.
EsteLux. During 2001, we received FDA clearance to market and sell the Palomar EsteLux Pulsed Light System. In 2002 and 2003, we offered six handpieces for the EsteLux system: LuxY, LuxG, LuxR, LuxRs, LuxB and LuxV. These handpieces emit pulses of intense light to treat unwanted hair, solar lentigo (sunspots), rosacea, actinic bronzing, spider veins, birthmarks, telangiectasias, acne and more. The LuxY handpiece is used for hair removal for large body areas and for pigmented lesion treatments. The LuxG handpiece delivers the RejuveLux process photofacial treatments that remove pigmented and vascular lesions to improve skin tone and texture. The LuxR handpiece can be used to remove hair on all skin types, from the fairest to the darkest, including deep tans. Likewise, the LuxRs handpiece can be used to remove hair on all skin types, but it has concentrated power in each pulse resulting in permanent hair reduction in fewer treatments. The LuxB handpiece provides effective treatment of lighter pigmented lesions on fair skin as well as leg and spider veins, and the LuxV handpiece treats pigmented lesions and mild to moderate acne. With these complimentary handpieces, the Lux Platform is one of the most affordable and multifaceted systems in the market.
MediLux. In March 2003, we launched the Palomar MediLux Pulsed Light System with the six handpieces also available on the EsteLux. The MediLux provides increased power, a faster repetition rate and a snap-on connector making it easier to switch among handpieces and provide treatments tailored to each individual being treated.
StarLux. In February 2004, we launched the StarLux® Laser and Pulsed Light System, and in June 2004, we began shipping this system. The StarLux has a single power supply capable of operating both lasers and lamps. The StarLux includes increased power, active contact cooling and a full color touch screen for easy operation. Currently, the StarLux operates five of the EsteLux / MediLux handpieces, namely the LuxY, LuxG, LuxR, LuxRs, and LuxV. In addition, the increased power of the StarLux allows for the operation of a long pulse Nd:YAG laser handpiece, the Lux1064. In January 2005, the Lux1064 laser handpiece received FDA clearance for a variety of applications, including but not limited to removal of pigmented and vascular lesions, including visible leg veins, tattoo and hair removal, removal of red pigmentation in hypertrophic and keloid scars and treatment of PFB. The Lux1064 is a high power laser handpiece featuring Smooth Pulse technology and Active Contact Cooling while also providing multiple spot sizes.
Our patented Active Contact Cooling technology sends a chilled water supply through the StarLux handpieces, thus cooling the skin before, during, and after treatment. This feature is designed to ensure safety and comfort during treatment. The StarLuxs high-powered treatments deliver long-lasting and even permanent results. The StarLux full-color screen allows easy finger-touch operation and instant handpiece recognition while providing constant feedback on operating parameters.
In 2005, we introduced and began shipping a new infrared handpiece, the LuxIR, for deep tissue heating for relief of muscle and joint pain. In 2006, we received FDA clearance for the LuxIR handpiece for soft tissue coagulation and began marketing the LuxIR for skin tightening through soft tissue coagulation.
In 2006, we introduced and began shipping the Lux1540 Fractional Laser handpiece for soft tissue coagulation. In 2007, we received FDA clearance for the Lux1540 for non-ablative skin resurfacing. The Lux1540 delivers light in an array of high precision microbeams which create narrow, deep columns of tissue coagulation that penetrate well below the epidermis and into the dermis, while sparing the tissue surrounding the columns from damage.
In February 2007, we introduced the Lux1540-Z Fractional Laser handpiece which allows the user to control micro-beam density and focal depth as well as spot size. We also introduced the LuxW Pulsed Light handpiece optimized for treatment of very light pigmented lesions and LuxYs Pulsed Light handpiece for permanent reduction of lighter, finer hair.
StarLux 500. In February 2007, we launched the StarLux® 500 Laser and Pulsed Light System, and began shipping in March 2007. The StarLux 500 provides 70% more power and increased functionality and speed of treatment as compared to the original StarLux. The StarLux 500 operates all the handpieces available for the original StarLux System as well as the new LuxDeepIR handpiece. The LuxDeepIR Fractional handpiece is an upgrade of the LuxIR Fractional handpiece and includes advanced cooling, contact sensors and longer pulse duration for improved safety and efficacy.
Q-YAG 5. During 2001, we received FDA clearance to market and sell the Palomar Q-YAG 5 system for tattoo and pigmented lesion removal. The Palomar Q-YAG 5 is a Q-switched, frequency-doubled Neodymium laser. The combination of wavelengths allows users to treat a full spectrum of colors and inks, and the systems design lowers costs and allows broader use of the instrument. The single wavelength is ideal for treating darker tattoo inks and dermal-pigmented lesions, such as Nevi of Ota common in Japan and other Pacific Rim countries. The mixed wavelength is better suited for brighter colors and epidermal-pigmented lesions, such as solar lentigines. In addition, the mixed wavelength permits brighter, more superficial and deeper and darker target areas to be treated simultaneously. The Palomar Q-YAG 5 incorporates the laser into the handpiece making it smaller and lighter than competitive systems, which is especially desirable for mobile and/or small physician offices. These attributes reduce the cost, increase the reliability of the system and eliminate costly optics and service problems that are common with other high power Q-Switched lasers.
Legacy Products. We no longer sell the EpiLaser or E2000 hair removal laser systems, the RD-1200 Q-switched ruby laser, SLP1000® Diode Laser System or the NeoLux Pulsed Light System. However, we continue to service these systems. The service of the RD-1200 has been contracted out to a third party service provider, and we have the option of contracting out the service of the EpiLaser, E2000 and SLP 1000 systems to this same party.
In our international sales and marketing efforts, we employ a global network of strategic distributors and have established distribution relationships throughout Europe, Japan, Australia, South and Central America, the Far East, and the Middle East. As of December 31, 2006, we utilized 44 distributors in 45 countries. Generally, our distributors enter into a one to two year contract which includes an agreement not to sell our competitors products. Our sales strategy is to choose the most productive and practical distribution channel within each of our geographic markets.
To increase our presence in Europe, we are in the process of forming a subsidiary corporation in The Netherlands. We will use this location to coordinate various marketing and distribution activities in Europe and the Middle East as well as provide certain service for our products sold in Europe.
The following table shows product revenue relating to our international sales activities during each of the last three fiscal years by geographic region:
6At December 31, 2006 2005 2004 United States 75 % 71 % 63 % Japan 3 % 7 % 10 % Canada 8 % 7 % 10 % Europe 6 % 6 % 7 % Australia 1 % 3 % 3 % Asia / Pacific 5 % 4 % 6 % South and Central America 2 % 2 % 1 % Total 100 % 100 % 100 %
Products Under Development
We are engaged in developing products for the dermatology and cosmetic market. Products under development include lasers, lamps and other light based products for the removal of unwanted hair, tattoos, pigmented lesions, leg vein and other vascular lesions, acne, fat, cellulite, and skin rejuvenation, including wrinkles and skin tone and texture as well as other cosmetic applications. We perform our own research and we also fund research at various institutions throughout the world. Product development is performed by scientists and engineers at our headquarters. We direct resources at both new products for existing markets such as the removal of unwanted hair, vascular and pigmented lesions and tattoos, acne and wrinkle removal, and other products for new markets, such as fat reduction, including the treatment of cellulite.
Production, Sources and Availability of Materials
Our manufacturing operations are located in Burlington, Massachusetts. We maintain control of and manufacture most key subassemblies in-house. Manufacturing consists of the assembly and testing of components purchased from outside suppliers and contract manufacturers. Each fully assembled system is subjected to a rigorous set of tests prior to shipment to the customer or distributor. We have obtained ISO 13485 2003, CDN MDR, and Council Directive 93/42/EEC approvals. We are registered with the Federal Food and Drug Administration.
We depend and will depend upon a number of outside suppliers for components used in our manufacturing process. Most of our components and raw materials are available from a number of qualified suppliers. If our suppliers are unable to meet our requirements on a timely basis, production could be interrupted until an alternative source of supply is obtained.
Patents and Licenses
Our success and ability to compete are dependent on our ability to develop and maintain proprietary technology and operate without infringing on the proprietary rights of others. We rely on a combination of patents, trademarks, trade secret and copyright laws and contractual restrictions to protect our proprietary technology. These legal protections afford only limited protection for our technology. We are presently the exclusive licensee of two United States patents and the non-exclusive licensee of three United States patents as well as corresponding foreign patents and pending applications owned by Massachusetts General Hospital, and we are the joint owner with Massachusetts General Hospital of seven other United States patents as well as corresponding United States pending applications and foreign patents and pending applications. In addition, we are the sole owner of sixteen United States patents as well as corresponding and non-corresponding United States pending applications and foreign patents and pending applications, and have rights to other patents under exclusive and non-exclusive licenses.
We seek to limit disclosure of our intellectual property by requiring employees, consultants and any third party with access to our proprietary information to execute confidentiality agreements with us and often agreements that include assignment of rights provisions to us. Due to rapid changes in technology, we believe that factors such as the technological and creative skills of our personnel, new product developments and enhancements to existing products are as important as the various legal protections of our technology to establishing and maintaining a leadership position.
Despite our efforts to protect our proprietary rights, unauthorized parties may attempt to copy aspects of the products or to obtain and use information that we regard as proprietary. Policing unauthorized use of our products is difficult. Litigation may be necessary to enforce intellectual property rights, to protect our trade secrets, to determine the validity and scope of the proprietary rights of others or to defend against claims of infringement or invalidity. Any such resulting litigation could result in substantial costs and diversion of resources and could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition. There can be no assurance that our means of protecting proprietary rights will be adequate or that our competitors will not independently develop similar technology. Any failure by us to meaningfully protect our proprietary rights could have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and financial condition.
Management believes that none of our current products infringe upon valid claims of patents owned by third parties. However, there have been claims made against us and there can be no assurance that third parties will not make further claims of infringement with respect to our current or future products. Any such claims, with or without merit, could be time-consuming to defend, result in costly litigation, divert our attention and resources, cause product shipment delays or require us to enter into royalty or licensing agreements. Such royalty or licensing agreements, if required, may not be available on terms acceptable to us or at all. A successful claim of intellectual property infringement against us and our failure or inability to license the infringed technology or develop or license technology with comparable functionality could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and operating results. (See Item 3 Legal Proceedings for more information.)
Generally, we do not maintain a high level of backlog. As a result, we do not believe that our backlog at any particular time is indicative of future sales levels.
The market in which we are engaged is subject to intense competition and rapid technological change. Our competitors include but are not limited to: Candela, Inc., Cutera, Inc., Cynosure, Inc., Syneron, Inc., Lumenis, Inc., Alma, Inc., Iridex, Inc. and other smaller competitors. Some of our competitors have greater financial, marketing, and technical resources than we have. Moreover, some competitors have developed, and others may attempt to develop, products with applications similar to that of ours. We expect that there may be further consolidation of companies within the light based industry via acquisitions, partnering arrangements or joint ventures. We compete primarily on the basis of technology, product performance, price, quality, reliability, distribution and customer service. To remain competitive, we will be required to continue to develop new products and periodically enhance our existing products.
Food and Drug Administration Regulations
All of our current products are light based devices, which are subject to FDA regulations for clinical testing, manufacturing, labeling, sale, distribution and promotion. Before a new product or a new use of or claim for an existing product can be marketed in the United States, we must obtain clearance from the FDA. The types of medical devices that we seek to market in the United States generally must receive either 510(k) clearance or PMA approval in advance from the FDA pursuant to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The FDAs 510(k) clearance process usually takes from three to twelve months, but it can last longer. The process of obtaining PMA approval is much more costly and uncertain and generally takes from one to three years or even longer. To date, the FDA has deemed our products eligible for the 510(k) clearance process. We believe that most of our products in development will receive similar treatment. However, we cannot be sure that the FDA will not impose the more burdensome PMA approval process upon one or more of our future products, nor can we be sure that 510(k) clearance or PMA approval will ever be obtained for any product it proposes to market and failure to do so could adversely affect our ability to sell products.
Number of Employees
As of December 31, 2006, we employed 225 people. We are not subject to any collective bargaining agreements, have not experienced a work stoppage and consider our relations with our employees to be good.
Our internet site is www.palomarmedical.com. You can access our Investor Relations webpage through our internet site, www.palomarmedical.com, by clicking on the Investor Relations link to the heading SEC Filings. We make available free of charge, on or through our Investor Relations webpage, our proxy statements, our Annual Reports on Form 10-K, our Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q, Current Reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to those reports filed or furnished pursuant to the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the Exchange Act), as soon as reasonably practicable after such material is electronically filed with, or furnished to, the SEC. We also makes available, through our Investor Relations webpage, via a link to the SECs internet site, statements of beneficial ownership of our equity securities filed by our directors, officers, 10% or greater shareholders and others under Section 16 of the Exchange Act.Item 1A. Risk Factors
This report contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties, such as statements of our objectives, expectations and intentions. The cautionary statements made in this report should be read as applicable to all forward-looking statements wherever they appear in this report. Our actual results could differ materially from those discussed herein. Factors that could cause or contribute to such differences include those discussed below, as well as those discussed elsewhere in this report.
If we do not continue to develop and commercialize new products and identify new markets for our products and technology, we may not remain competitive, and our revenues and operating results could suffer.
The aesthetic light based (both lasers and lamps) treatment system industry is subject to continuous technological development and product innovation. If we do not continue to be innovative in the development of new products and applications, our competitive position will likely deteriorate as other companies successfully design and commercialize new products and applications. We compete in the development, manufacture, marketing, sales and servicing of light based devices with numerous other companies, some of which have substantially greater direct worldwide sales capabilities. Our products also face competition from medical products, prescription drugs and cosmetic procedures, such as electrolysis and waxing.
Our products are subject to numerous medical device regulations. Compliance is expensive and time-consuming. Without necessary clearances, we may be unable to sell products and compete effectively.
All of our current products are light based devices, which are subject to FDA regulations for clinical testing, manufacturing, labeling, sale, distribution and promotion. Before a new product or a new use of or claim for an existing product can be marketed in the United States, we must obtain clearance from the FDA. In the event that we do not obtain FDA clearances, our ability to market products in the United States and revenue derived there from may be adversely affected. The types of medical devices that we seek to market in the U.S. generally must receive either 510(k) clearance or PMA approval in advance from the FDA pursuant to the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The FDAs 510(k) clearance process can be expensive and usually takes from four to twelve months, but it can last longer. The process of obtaining PMA approval is much more costly and uncertain and generally takes from one to three years or even longer from the time the pre-market approval application is submitted to the FDA until an approval is obtained.
In order to obtain pre-market approval and, in some cases, a 510(k) clearance, a product sponsor must conduct well controlled clinical trials designed to test the safety and effectiveness of the product. Conducting clinical trials generally entails a long, expensive and uncertain process that is subject to delays and failure at any stage. The data obtained from clinical trials may be inadequate to support approval or clearance of a submission. In addition, the occurrence of unexpected findings in connection with clinical trials may prevent or delay obtaining approval or clearance. If we conduct clinical trials, they may be delayed or halted, or be inadequate to support approval or clearance, for numerous reasons, including:o
FDA, other regulatory authorities or an institutional review board may place a clinical trial on hold;o
patients may not enroll in clinical trials, or patient follow-up may not occur, at the rate we expect;o
patients may not comply with trial protocols;o
institutional review boards and third party clinical investigators may delay or reject our trial protocol;
third party clinical investigators may decline to participate in a trial or may not perform a trial on our anticipated schedule or consistent with the clinical trial protocol, good clinical practices, or other FDA requirements;o
third party organizations may not perform data collection and analysis in a timely or accurate manner;o
regulatory inspections of our clinical trials or manufacturing facilities may, among other things, require us to undertake corrective action or suspend or terminate our clinical trials, or invalidate our clinical trials;o
changes in governmental regulations or administrative actions; ando
the interim or final results of the clinical trials may be inconclusive or unfavorable as to safety or effectiveness.
Medical devices may be marketed only for the indications for which they are approved or cleared. The FDA may not approve or clear indications that are necessary or desirable for successful commercialization. Indeed, the FDA may refuse our requests for 510(k) clearance or pre-market approval of new products, new intended uses or modifications to existing products. Our clearances can be revoked if safety or effectiveness problems develop.
To date, the FDA has deemed our products eligible for the 510(k) clearance process. We believe that our products in development will receive similar treatment. However, we cannot be sure that the FDA will not impose the more burdensome PMA approval process upon one or more of our future products, nor can we be sure that 510(k) clearance or PMA approval will ever be obtained for any product we propose to market, and our failure to do so could adversely affect our ability to sell our products.
We often seek FDA clearance for additional indications for use. Clinical trials in support of such clearances for additional indications may be costly and time-consuming. In the event that we do not obtain additional FDA clearances, our ability to market products in the United States and revenue derived therefrom may be adversely affected. Medical devices may be marketed only for the indications for which they are approved or cleared, and if we are found to be marketing our products for off-label, or non-approved, uses we might be subject to FDA enforcement action or have other resulting liability.
Our products are subject to similar regulations in many international markets. Complying with these regulations is necessary for our strategy of expanding the markets for sales of our products into these countries. Compliance with the regulatory clearance process in any country is expensive and time consuming. Regulatory clearances may necessitate clinical testing, limitations on the number of sales and limitations on the type of end user, among other things. In certain instances, these constraints can delay planned shipment schedules as design and engineering modifications are made in response to regulatory concerns and requests. We may not be able to obtain clearances in each country in a timely fashion or at all, and our failure to do so could adversely affect our ability to sell our products in those countries.
After clearance or approval of our products, we are subject to continuing regulation by the FDA, and if we fail to comply with FDA regulations, our business could suffer.
Even after clearance or approval of a product, we are subject to continuing regulation by the FDA, including the requirements that our facility be registered and our devices listed with the agency. We are subject to Medical Device Reporting regulations, which require us to report to the FDA if our products may have caused or contributed to a death or serious injury or malfunction in a way that would likely cause or contribute to a death or serious injury if the malfunction were to recur. We must report corrections and removals to the FDA where the correction or removal was initiated to reduce a risk to health posed by the device or to remedy a violation of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act caused by the device that may present a risk to health, and we must maintain records of other corrections or removals. The FDA closely regulates promotion and advertising and our promotional and advertising activities could come under scrutiny. If the FDA objects to our promotional and advertising activities or finds that we failed to submit reports under the Medical Device Reporting regulations, for example, the FDA may allege our activities resulted in violations.
The FDA and state authorities have broad enforcement powers. Our failure to comply with applicable regulatory requirements could result in enforcement action by the FDA or state agencies, which may include any of the following sanctions:o
letters, warning letters, fines, injunctions, consent decrees and civil penalties;o
repair, replacement, refunds, recall or seizure of our products;o
operating restrictions or partial suspension or total shutdown of production;o
refusing or delaying our requests for 510(k) clearance or pre-market approval of new products or new intended uses; ando
criminal prosecution.If any of these events were to occur, they could harm our business.We have modified some of our products and sold them under prior 510(k) clearances. The FDA could retroactively decide the modifications required new 510(k) clearances and require us to cease marketing and/or recall the modified products. Any modification to one of our 510(k) cleared devices that could significantly affect its safety or effectiveness, or that would constitute a major change in its intended use, requires a new 510(k) clearance. We may be required to submit pre-clinical and clinical data depending on the nature of the changes. We may not be able to obtain additional 510(k) clearances or pre-market approvals for modifications to, or additional indications for, our existing products in a timely fashion, or at all. Delays in obtaining future clearances or approvals would adversely affect our ability to introduce new or enhanced products into the market in a timely manner, which in turn would harm our revenue and operating results. We have mod