Zion Oil & Gas Inc (ZN) - Description of business
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We explore for oil and gas in Israel. Our principal assets are petroleum rights issued by the Ministry of National Infrastructures of the State of Israel, specifically an exploration license covering 397,000 Israeli dunam (approximately 98,100 acres), entitled License No. 298/Ma'anit-Joseph. We also hold a preliminary permit with priority rights covering 490,000 dunam (approximately 121,100 acres) and entitled Preliminary Permit No. 186/Asher, abutting on and immediately to the north and west of the Ma'anit-Joseph License. We have named the project to explore the license and the permit areas the "Joseph Project."We hold 100% of the working interest in our license and permit, which means we are responsible for 100% of the costs of exploration and, if established, production. Our net revenue interest is 87.5%, which means we would receive 87.5% of the gross proceeds from the sale of oil and gas from license and permit areas upon their conversion to production leases, if there is any commercial production. The 12.5% we would not receive is a royalty reserved by the State of Israel. The State of Israel may take its royalty in kind. If the State of Israel elects not to take the royalty in kind, then we would pay the royalty based upon our arranging the sales, if any, of all the oil and gas. Other than its option to take its 12.5% royalty in kind, the government has no right of participation in any portion of our project. No royalty would be payable to any landowner with respect to production from our license or permit areas as the State of Israel owns all the mineral rights. In the event commercial production is established, we will be setting aside a royalty (or equivalent net profits interest) of 6% for charitable contributions. In addition, our key employee incentive plan will receive a royalty (or equivalent net profits interest) of up to 1.5%. This means our effective net revenue interest will be no less than 80%.Our executive offices are located at 6510 Abrams Road, Suite 300, Dallas, Texas 75231 and our telephone number is (214) 221-4610. Our website address is www.zionoil.com. Our office in Israel is located at 15 Bareket St., Caesarea Industrial Park, 38900 Israel, and the telephone number is +972 (4) 623-1425.BackgroundIn 1985, during a visit to Israel, John M. Brown (our founder and CEO) became inspired and dedicated to finding oil and gas in Israel, and he started the process that led to the Joseph Project. During the next fourteen years he made several trips each year to Israel, hired oil and gas consultants in Israel and Texas, met with Israeli government officials, made direct investments with local exploration companies, and assisted Israeli exploration companies in raising money for oil and gas exploration in Israel. This activity led Mr. Brown to form Zion Oil & Gas, Inc. in April 2000 in order to receive the award of a small onshore petroleum license from the Israeli government. Mr. Brown and 25 different persons who had assisted him during the fourteen-year period started Zion with an initial cash contribution of $2,400 for which they received 2,400,000 shares of common stock at the price of 1/10 of one cent per share. Upon its formation, Mr. Brown and the others contributed to Zion all of the technical, economic, legal and financial data they had accumulated over the years relating to oil and gas exploration in Israel. For accounting purposes, no monetary value was attached to the data and we are unable to provide you with any estimate of its cost of acquisition or current market or replacement value, if any. Zion was originally incorporated on April 6, 2000 in Florida. On July 9, 2003, we were reincorporated in Delaware.Upon the award of our first petroleum right (the License No. 298/Ma'anit, which is referred to as the "Ma'anit License") in May 2000, the Israeli government gave us access to most of its data with respect to previous exploration in the area, including geologic reports, seismic records and profiles, drilling reports, well files, gravity surveys, geochemical surveys and regional maps. We also gathered information concerning prior and ongoing geological, geophysical and drilling activity relevant to our planned activities from a variety of publicly accessible sources. The second map at Item 2 of this Annual Report shows the outline of our current Ma'anit-Joseph License and Asher Permit. It also shows the location of the approximately 500 kilometers of seismic lines and relative locations of eight mid-range (to 7,500 feet) and deep (to 21,000 feet) wells in our immediate area, data and information concerning which we have acquired and analyzed. The Israeli government itself conducted most of the seismic surveys during the 1970's and 1980's in order to provide data to encourage oil companies to invest in exploratory drilling. Private and public Israeli, American and international companies conducted additional seismic survey and drilled most of theeight wells in the period since 1980. Our best estimate of the cost of the exploration activities in our license area through 2003 (in actual dollars spent at the time) is shown in the table below. Most of the numbers are from sources that we consider verifiable, including reports to the Israeli government, press releases, filings with the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange and personal involvement of some of our officers. Some numbers we estimated based upon the scope of the completed work. Year Company Activity Amount ($) Notes1975-80Israeli GovernmentGravity Studies750,000Weeks ExplorationArea Geology40,000Superior OilBasin Analysis50,0001977-82Israeli GovernmentSeismic2,500,0001977-2002Academic GroupsVarious Technical Studies200,0001978-84Energy ExplorationDrilled Asher-Atlit Well25,000,0001979-81OEIL- NaphthaDrilled Ga'ash Well6,500,0001983-85OEILBasin Analysis100,0001993-2000Givot OlamSeismic, G&G, G&A3,000,0001993-4Givot OlamDrilled Meged #2 Well9,200,0001993-5Modi'in Ltd. PartnershipDrilled David Well17,800,000Sedot NeftDrilled Ma'anit Well5,000,000Givot OlamTest Meged #2 Well1,140,000Givot OlamDrilled Meged #3 Well7,010,0002002-3Givot OlamDrilled Meged #4 Well6,490,0002000-3Zion Oil & Gas, Inc.Seismic, G&G, G&A1,170,00010 1975-2003 Totals 85,950,000 Notes:Engineering estimate by us, based upon approximately 1,000 square kilometers of gravity survey at an average price of $750 per square kilometer.Estimate by our executive vice-president based upon his personal experience and knowledge of costs of similar studies in the international petroleum industry, cost adjusted to the period in question.Engineering estimate by us, based upon approximately 500 kilometers of seismic lines upon and around our project area at an average acquisition and processing cost of $5,000 per kilometer, the average cost that Dr. Kashai and Elisha Roih observed for onshore seismic data acquisition in their companies at that time. Please note that we are counting only lines that we used in our analysis and not the additional 500 kilometers of lines that were used in our area to designate drilling locations for the other wells near our license.Oral report to us by Jack Sherman, the well site geologist on location at the time the well was being drilled. Mr. Sherman assisted Mr. Brown in his early investigation of oil and gas opportunities in Israel and served as our senior consulting geologist until his death in 2003. Oral confirmation by the general manager of the operator (Andy SoRelle) to Mr. Brown.Engineering estimate by us of the cost at the time for the drilling and testing of an 18,000-foot well in Israel that encountered no major problems during drilling.Prospectuses in Hebrew filed by Givot Olam with the Israeli Securities Authority in 1993, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2003, and on file at the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange. Prospectus in Hebrew filed by Modi'in Ltd. Partnership with the Israeli Securities Authority in January 1996 and annual report for 1997, both on file at the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange.Prospectus in Hebrew filed by Sedot Neft with the Israeli Securities Authority in November 1993 and on file at the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange; joint venture agreement signed in February 1999 between Sedot Neft and a predecessor of Zion.Prospectus in Hebrew filed by Givot Olam with the Israel Securities Authority in January 2004, on file at the Tel Aviv Stock Exchange.Invoices and accounting records in our files.Israel's Petroleum LawOur business in Israel is subject to regulation by the State of Israel pursuant to the Petroleum Law, 5712-1952. The administration and implementation of the Petroleum Law is vested in the Minister of National Infrastructures, the Petroleum Commissioner and an advisory commission (the "Petroleum Commission"). The following discussion includes brief statements of certain provisions of the Petroleum Law as currently in effect.Petroleum resources are owned by the State of Israel, regardless of whether they are located on state lands or the offshore continental shelf. No person is allowed to explore for or produce petroleum without being granted a specific right under the Petroleum Law. The law provides for three types of rights, two relevant to the exploration stage and the third for production.Preliminary permit. The most basic right is the "preliminary permit", which may be granted for a period not exceeding 18 months. The permit allows the prospector to conduct preliminary investigations, such as field geology, airborne magnetometer surveys and seismic data acquisition, but does not allow test drilling. The holder of a preliminary permit is entitled to request a priority right on the permit area, which, if granted, prevents an award of petroleum rights on the permit area to any other party. There are no restrictions as to size of the permit area or to the number of permits that may be held by one prospector. However, Israeli policy is to award an area no larger than that for which the applicant has a reasonable plan of operation and has shown evidence of the necessary financial resources to execute the plan.License. The next level of petroleum right is the "license", bestowing an exclusive right for further exploration work and requiring the drilling of one or more test wells. The initial term of a license is up to three years and it may be extended for up to an additional four years. A license area may not exceed 400,000 dunam (approximately 98,800 acres). One dunam is equal to 1000 square meters (approximately .24711 of an acre). No one entity may hold more than twelve licenses or hold more than a total of four million dunam in aggregate license area.Production lease. Upon discovery of petroleum in commercial quantities, a licensee has a statutory "right" to receive a production "lease." The initial lease term is 30 years, extendable up to a maximum period of 50 years. A lease confers upon the lessee the exclusive right to explore for and produce petroleum in the lease area and requires the lessee to produce petroleum in commercial quantities (or pursue test or development drilling). The lessee is entitled to transport and market the petroleum produced, subject, however, to the right of the Government to require the lessee to supply local needs first, at market price.Petroleum Rights Fees. The fees payable to the government to maintain the various petroleum rights are currently (as of September 1, 2006) as follows:(a) Fee for Preliminary Permit without priority rights - None.(b) Fee for Preliminary Permit with Priority Rights - New Israeli Shekels (NIS) 5.01 (approx. US $1.12) per 1,000 dunam (approximately 247.11 acres) per month.(c) Fee for License (on-shore) per 1,000 dunam or part thereof:First and second years- NIS91.29(approx. US $20.56) per yearThird year- NIS151.93(approx. US $34.22) per yearFourth year- NIS303.14(approx. US $68.27) per yearFifth and subsequent years- NIS908.41(approx. US $204.60) per year (d) Fee for License (off-shore) per 1,000 dunam or part thereof: NIS 60.66 (approx. US $13.66) annually.(e) Fee for Lease - NIS 910.82 (approx. US $205.14) per 1,000 dunam or part thereof per year. A lessee who pays a royalty shall be exempt from a leasehold fee for a contiguous area, as approved by the Petroleum Commissioner, of 50,000 dunam around each producing well. The fees are adjusted quarterly to reflect changes in the Israeli consumer price index. The US Dollar values appearing above are calculated at the Representative Rate of US $1.00 equal NIS 4.40 as published by the Bank of Israel on August 1, 2006.Requirements and entitlements of holders of petroleum rights. The holder of a petroleum right (permit, license or lease) is required to conduct its operations with due diligence and in accordance with the accepted practice in the petroleum industry. The holder is required to submit progress and final reports; provided, however, the information disclosed in such reports remains confidential for as long as the holder owns a petroleum right on the area concerned. The holder is required to pay a royalty to the government of 12.5% of production. The government may elect to take the royalty in kind, or take payment in cash for its share of production as we sell the oil and gas.Under the Petroleum Law, the holder of a Petroleum Right that has failed to pay or deliver any royalty due and continues to fail to so pay or deliver following written notice to cure from the Commissioner is subject to having its stocks of petroleum, installations and other assets belonging to the undertaking attached, seized and removed pending settlement in full of the royalty due. If the royalty has not been settled in full within 30 days of the attachment, anything attached may be sold by the Minister of National Infrastructures, on terms deemed fit by the Minister, until the royalty due is discharged, with the excess to be returned to the holder of the Petroleum Right. In addition, the Petroleum Right on which royalty is overdue is subject to cancellation if the royalties in arrears are not paid within 60 days of receipt of written notice to cure given by the Petroleum Commissioner, which notice gives warning that failure to pay may result in cancellation of the Right. The notice gives warning that failure to pay may result in cancellation. Cancellation of the Right by the Commissioner is subject to appeal to the Minister.The grant of a petroleum right does not automatically entitle its holder to enter upon the land to which the right applies or to carry out exploration and production work. Entry requires the consent of the private or public holders of the surface rights and of other public regulatory bodies ( e.g. planning and building authorities, Nature Reserves Authority, municipal and security authorities, etc.). The holder of a petroleum right may request the Government to acquire, on its behalf, land needed for petroleum purposes. The petroleum right holder is required to obtain all other necessary approvals.Proposed Changes in the Petroleum Law. On October 23, 2002, in conjunction with the 2003 Budget, a bill was submitted to the Israeli Knesset by the Government which, if it had been adopted, would have introduced major changes in the Petroleum Law and repealed many rights currently available to persons involved in petroleum exploration and production activities. Specifically, it proposed to change the regime pursuant to which petroleum rights were granted and held, to repeal certain rights of holders of petroleum rights to enter surface lands in order to conduct petroleum operations and receive allocations of water for drilling operations and to rescind exemptions granted to holders of petroleum rights and petroleum contractors from certain customs duties and sales and excise taxes. While this proposal was rejected in Knesset committee, was not passed in conjunction with the 2003 Budget, and has not been resubmitted in connection with either the 2004, 2005 or 2006 budgets, it may be resubmitted in the future. If resubmitted and adopted as proposed, the effect of various of the proposed amendments could likely result in increasing our costs of conducting petroleum drilling and production operations in Israel and, in certain instances, where reasonable arrangements could not be reached with holders of surface rights, might result in our inability to pursue certain operations.In February 2004, the Petroleum Commissioner and staff of Ministry of National Infrastructures proposed a series of amendments to the Petroleum Law that were sent in February 2004 to us and others in the Israeli petroleum industry for comments. The principal amendments proposed were: (1) repeal of the exemptions granted to holders of petroleum rights from certain purchase and excise taxes; (2) requiring holders of petroleum rights to post bonds to ensure the performance of work commitments and post-operations site remediation; (3) inclusion of environmental and safety standards for petroleum exploration and production activities; (4) limitation of production leases to geological strata rather than to geographically defined surface areas; (5) providing for forced pooling where reservoirs underlie lands subject to more than one petroleum right; (6) introduction in certain circumstances of a mandatory tender regime for the issuance of petroleum rights, including preliminary permits; (7) restriction (in certain circumstances) on rights to enter or use surface lands for petroleum operations and rescission of preferential water rights for drilling operations; (8) repeal of the automatic rights granted to holders of production leases to import, refine, export and trade in petroleum and petroleum products; (9) amendment of conditions for the granting of preliminary permits and licenses, introduction of limitations to data secrecy rights and provision for restructuring of the Petroleum Commission. Following comments made by us and other Israeli petroleum industry participants, the proposed amendments were reviewed and analyzed in anticipation of significant revisions to the proposals.In May 2006, we were informed by the Petroleum Commissioner's office that the proposed amendment of the Petroleum Law was removed from the Ministry's agenda for 2006 and is not currently under consideration. However, it is not possible to predict whether the revision of the Law will again be raised and, if so, what the revisions will be or whether or to what extent such proposed revisions will be adopted by the government and enacted into law or to what extent, if any, our operations would be affected by any or all of such revisions to the Petroleum Law as may ultimately be enacted.Petroleum TaxationOur activities in Israel will be subject to taxation both in Israel and in the United States. Under the U.S. Internal Revenue Code, we will be entitled to claim either a deduction or a foreign tax credit with respect to Israeli income taxes paid or incurred on our Israeli source oil and gas income. As a general rule, Zion anticipates it will be more advantageous for it to claim a credit rather than a deduction for applicable Israeli income taxes on its United States tax return. A tax treaty exists between the United States and Israel that would provide opportunity to use the tax credit. Exploration and development expenses. Under current Israeli tax laws, exploration and development expenses incurred by a holder of a petroleum right can, at the option of such holder, either be expensed in the year it occurs or capitalized and expensed (or amortized) over a period of years. Most of our expenses to date have been treated for Israeli income tax purposes as accumulated revenue expenses. Depletion allowances. Under current Israeli tax laws, the holder of an interest in a petroleum license or lease is allowed a deduction for income tax purposes on account of the depletion of the petroleum reserve relating to such interest. This may be by way of percentage depletion or cost depletion, whichever is greater. Percentage depletion is at the rate of 27.5% of the gross income, but subject to a limit of 50% of the net income attributed to the relevant petroleum license or lease in that tax year. Cost depletion is the amount calculated by dividing the "adjusted cost" of the petroleum interest, being the cost less accrued depletion allowances to date, at the beginning of the tax year, by the number of units remaining in the estimated petroleum reservoir at the beginning of such year, and multiplying this sum by the number of units of petroleum produced from the interest and saved during the tax year.Corporate tax. Under current Israeli tax laws, whether a company is registered in Israel or is a foreign company operating in Israel through a branch, it is subject to Israeli Companies Tax on its taxable income (including capital gains) from Israeli sources at a flat rate of 31% in 2006, which rate is scheduled to reduce annually thereafter to a minimum rate of 25% by 2010.Import duties. Insofar as similar items are not available in Israel, the Petroleum Law provides that the owner of a petroleum right may import into Israel, free of customs, purchase taxes and other import duties, all machinery, equipment, installations, fuel, structures, transport facilities etc. (apart from consumer goods and private cars and similar vehicles) that are required for the petroleum exploration and production purposes.Currency control. If the necessary taxes have been paid and a foreign currency source has been established for the relevant investment, foreign investors may repatriate principal and profits of investments without restriction.Royalties on production. Under the Petroleum Law, the holder of a petroleum lease is required to pay a royalty of one-eighth in kind or cash (at the option of the Petroleum Commissioner) of the quantity of petroleum produced and saved from the leased area excluding the quantity of petroleum used by the lessee in its operations. Royalties are treated as revenue expenses.Proposed Changes in Petroleum Taxation. On October 23, 2002, in conjunction with the 2003 Budget, a bill was submitted to the Israeli Knesset by the Government that, if it had been adopted, would have led to a major restructuring of the Israeli system for taxing oil and gas operations and income. Pursuant to the proposal, the applicable taxes would have been imposed in accordance with rules to have been established by the Minister of Finance and would have been deductible against the Companies Tax. This proposal was rejected in Knesset committee and was not passed in conjunction with the 2003 Budget and has not been resubmitted since, although it may be in the future.An alternative initiative to amend the fiscal regime applicable to oil and gas operations was proposed in 2003 by the Ministry of National Infrastructures on a preliminary basis for further study. Under this proposal, the current royalty-based system would be replaced by a Petroleum Revenue Tax regime in which tax rates for on-shore production would vary between 0 - 30% (up to 75% for certain off-shore production), following recapture of costs, depending on the size of the discovery. It has been the position of the Ministry of National Infrastructures that any new fiscal regime should not apply to holders of outstanding exploration licenses and production leases and that such holders be governed by the existing fiscal regime ("grandfather rights"). The staffs of the Israeli Finance and Justice Ministries have taken issue with the Ministry of National Infrastructures on this point. Zion does not know and cannot predict how this dispute would be resolved or, if "grandfathered" status were not granted, how the courts would treat a challenge to any attempt to subject existing rights holders to the proposed new fiscal regime, which in many circumstances would result in substantially higher government takes than provided under the current regime.Petroleum Revenue Tax regimes, as that which was preliminarily proposed by the Ministry of National Infrastructures, are as a general matter not entitled to foreign tax credit for U.S. tax purposes unless specifically provided in a tax treaty between the United States and the taxing jurisdiction. The current U.S. - Israel Tax Treaty does not provide for a credit for any Israeli tax in the nature of a Petroleum Revenue Tax. Thus, if the proposal of the Ministry of National Infrastructures were to have been adopted, and if the U.S. - Israel Tax Treaty were not amended to provide for such credits, to the extent we would be subjected to such new tax in Israel (if it were to be imposed), our United States tax liability will likely be increased significantly.In May 2006, we were informed by the Petroleum Commissioner's office that the various proposed amendments to the tax and fiscal regimes applicable to oil and gas exploration and production had been removed from the agenda and were not currently under consideration by the government or at any of the relevant ministries.The law relating to taxation of petroleum exploration and production operations and related transactions is not well developed in Israel, and many issues relating to the transactions described herein and in which we may be involved, including transactions relating to the transfer of certain interests to our Key Employee Incentive Fund and the Charitable Trusts. The Israeli tax liabilities for the Fund and Trusts have neither been reviewed by Israeli tax authorities nor been subject to judicial scrutiny. As a result, we cannot predict how the Israeli tax authorities or courts will rule in the event issues relating to our contemplated operations and transactions are presented to them.Environmental Legislation and CostsThere is no environmental legislation in Israel directed specifically to onshore petroleum exploration activities other than the requirement to adequately plug a well upon its abandonment. Conduct of petroleum exploration and drilling activities in compliance with "good oil field practices" will as a general matter meet the requirements of Israeli law regarding petroleum exploration activities. We intend to conduct all activities in compliance with "good oil field practices" and our proposed budgets and authorizations for expenditures have been and will be prepared on such basis. In the circumstances, no additional costs have been budgeted for the specific purpose of complying with environmental laws. To date we have not plugged any wells drilled by us. We estimate that any well we plug and abandon in the future will yield a salvage value of the recovered pipe in excess of the costs of plugging and abandonment.Political ClimateBetween October 2000 and the summer of 2004, there was a significant increase in violence primarily in the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, and negotiations between Israel and Palestinian representatives ceased for a period of over thirty months. Negotiations recommenced in June 2003 with the internationally sponsored "Road Map" plan, to which there is significant opposition from extremists on both sides. With the death of the former chairman of the Palestinian Authority in November 2004, violence has subsided, and Israel has effectively completed a disengagement process in the Gaza Strip and northern Samaria. Violence has further diminished with the building by Israel of the security fence between centers of Israeli and Palestinian populations. The chances for this renewed peace process cannot be predicted. This uncertainty is heightened with the recent election of a majority of HamasParty candidates to the Palestinian Authority parliament and the establishment of a Hamas led government in the Palestinian Authority. In late June 2006, following a terrorist attack from Gaza on an Israeli army outpost in Israel and the kidnapping of an Israeli soldier, Israel commenced military action in Gaza. In July 2006, following the launching of rocket attacks on Israeli border villages and the killing and kidnapping of several Israeli soldiers on patrol in Israel by the Lebanese-based Hezbollah terrorist organization, Israel commenced military action aimed at returning the kidnapped soldiers and removing the Hezbollah threat from Israel's northern border. International diplomatic efforts and a United Nations Security Council resolution a cease-fire has been implemented in Lebanon; diplomatic attempts toward a cease-fire in Gaza are continuing, as are attempts to restart the political dialogue.MarketsAs an exploration company, we do not yet have oil and gas reserves to market. The discussion of markets for oil and gas in Israel is set forth below to present the economic environment within which we would have to operate should our exploratory drilling be successful.If any of our exploratory wells are commercially productive, we would install oil and gas separation facilities and storage tanks. Initially, oil from the license area would be transported by truck to the oil refinery located near Haifa, a distance of approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles). Under the terms of the Petroleum Law, we may be required by the Minister of National Infrastructures to offer first refusal for any oil and gas discovered to Israeli domestic purchasers at market prices. Our long-range plans include laying a 6-kilometer (3.7-mile) oil pipeline to join an existing crude oil transfer line between the refinery in Haifa and the refinery in Ashdod, Israel.If we discover gas, we would sell initially to a local manufacturing plant located within 200 meters of the Ma'anit # 1 location. Long-range plans include connecting the separation facility to a countrywide gas transportation line, now in the planning and construction stages. We believe that any liquid hydrocarbons discovered in Israel would be sold at prices commonly received in the Mediterranean basin. Those prices, net to the wellhead, are expected to approximate Israeli market prices, plus or minus allowances for quality.At the present time, Israel can absorb any discovery of oil, condensate or gas liquids. Israel's total energy and petrochemicals consumption of liquid hydrocarbons in 2005 is estimated by Israeli government sources to be the equivalent of 82 million barrels of oil, 15% of which is for electric power generation. This leaves approximately 70 million barrels per year of demand for liquid hydrocarbons if all the electric power generation needs are met by coal and offshore gas fields. Even a giant oil field discovery (of which there can be no assurance) with a project life of almost 50 years, would not result in maximum production in any single year in excess of 70 million barrels. At this time there is almost no competition for locally produced oil. Only one oil field is currently producing in Israel and it is near the end of its economic life with daily production of about 30 barrels of oil.The current Israeli market for natural gas is in its infancy. There is now only a limited market in several regions of the country. The government is encouraging the power and industrial sectors to convert to gas energy and, jointly with the private sector, is developing a natural gas pipeline infrastructure intended to connect the newly discovered offshore gas fields and Egyptian sources to the potential market in Israel. We believe that the electrical generating sector (which is building combined cycle, gas-fired generating units), together with the industrial, commercial and future residential sectors when developed, should be able to absorb any gas discovery within a reasonable period.EmployeesWe currently employ four consultants and sixteen employees, seven of whom (out of the twenty total) are on a part-time basis. During the next twelve months, we expect to hire more full-time employees and some of our consultants will change over to full-time employee status. We also expect to hire several consultants for specific short-term services. None of our current employees are subject to any collective bargaining agreements and there have been no strikes.Charitable TrustsIf we are successful in finding commercial quantities of oil and gas in Israel, we intend to donate a portion of our gross revenues to charities in Israel, the United States and elsewhere in the world. The donations will be madethrough entities we intend to establish. These entities have not been as yet fully defined. For purposes of this discussion, we call them charitable trusts, but they may be tax-exempt corporations, foundations, associations or some other form of charitable entity. The exact form of the charitable trusts, the domicile of the charitable trust for contributions outside Israel, and the exact form of the royalty interests to be donated have not yet been determined. Those forms will depend to an extent upon advice of tax counsel and the outcome of negotiations with the Israeli Income Tax Authority. Independent of the form of organization and the form of interest donated, our board of directors has established the following parameters for the charitable trusts:There will be two separate and distinct charitable trusts, one to be established in Israel and one to operate outside Israel. Each of the charitable trusts will have its own board of directors (or board of trustees) consisting of up to nine members each, a majority of which shall not be our officers, directors or shareholders owning more than 1% of Zion. At least two-thirds of the Israeli charitable trust's board will be resident citizens of Israel. Our founder, John Brown, will serve as the initial chairman.At least two-thirds of the non-Israeli charitable trust's board will be resident citizens of the United States. John Brown will serve as the initial chairman of the board.The two charitable trusts will be set up with the objective that to the extent possible our donations to them will be tax deductible under both Israel and U.S. tax law.We will assign to each of the two charitable trusts an after payout (of exploration costs through the first discovery well) an overriding royalty interest of 3% in the Joseph Project petroleum rights and any other petroleum rights that we acquire in Israel. This means that 6% of the gross proceeds of oil and gas production would go to the two charitable trusts for charitable purposes, one-half (3%) to be used for charitable activities in Israel by one charitable trust and one-half (3%) to be used for such purposes in the United States and internationally by the other.The funds to be distributed by the two charitable trusts may only be given to charities that meet the qualification of section 501(c) (3) of the United States Internal Revenue Code or the equivalent section of the Israel Income Tax Code.If we are unsuccessful in our exploration efforts, no funds will be available for donation.The general application of the funds will be to support projects for the restoration of the land and people of Israel and social and educational and rehabilitative projects in the United States and internationally. We plan to establish these charitable trusts as soon as sufficient funds are available to establish the trusts without derogating from our ability to efficiently comply with our commitments under our license and permit. Our board will set specific guidelines for the determination of the type and nature of the charities to which the trusts may contribute and parameters, if and to the extent deemed appropriate by our board, for the amounts available for contribution to any individual charity or type of charity. Decisions concerning the specific charitable beneficiaries and the amounts to be donated will be made by the boards of the trusts, which shall be independent of the company as set forth above, in accordance with their organizational documents and procedures and the laws of their jurisdictions of establishment.Our shareholders, in a resolution passed at the 2002 Annual Meeting, approved the concept in principle, as well as the specific sources of interest to be donated to the trusts. Specifically, the shareholders resolution gave the board the authority to transfer to each charitable trust a (i) 3% "overriding royalty", (ii) net operating profits interest, or (iii) substantially equivalent interests.We have elected to donate the 3% overriding royalties and not the other interests, subject to any legal and tax restrictions under Israeli law as may be in effect at the time of the transfer of the interest. If, due to increased tax liability, we elect not to donate the overriding royalty but rather donate a substitute interest (such as a net profits interest) then the amount of the substitute interest would be calculated and specified such that it would have the same economic value to the charitable trust as would a 3% overriding royalty.These charitable trusts are to be new, separate and independent of The WendyArts Foundation, Beit Issie Shapiro, JlivesNMe Workplace Ministries, or any other charitable organization supported by (or affiliated with) any of our officers or directors (a "Related Charitable Organization"). Nothing in the charters, organizational documents or bylaws of our charitable trusts will prohibit any Related Charitable Organization from applying for a grant or other financial support from one of the Zion charitable trusts. However, any member of the governing body or committee recommending allocation of grants of one of the charitable trusts who is affiliated with a Related Charitable Organization applying for such financial aid will be precluded from voting on the grant.ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORSWe are an exploration stage company with no current source of income.Zion was incorporated in April 2000 and is still in its exploration stage. Our operations are subject to all of the risks inherent in establishing a new business enterprise. Our potential for success must be considered in light of the problems, expenses, difficulties, complications and delays frequently encountered in connection with a new business, especially the oil and gas exploration business. We cannot warrant or provide any assurance that our business objectives will be accomplished.Our financial condition has been unsound in the past and might again be so in the future.All of our audited financial statements since inception have contained a statement by the auditors that raise substantial doubt about us being able to continue as a "going concern" unless we are able to raise additional capital.We have no proved reserves or current production and we may never have any.We do not have any proved reserves or current production of oil or gas. We cannot assure you that any wells will be completed or produce oil or gas in commercially profitable quantities.We have a history of operating losses and we could remain unprofitable for a long time.We incurred operating losses of $1,604,714 for the year ended December 31, 2005 (as restated), $1,736,934 for the year ended December 31, 2004 (as restated), $873,310 for the year ended December 31, 2003 (as restated) and $403,114 for the year ended December 31, 2002 (as restated). The accumulated deficit as of December 31, 2005 was $4,830,376. We cannot assure that we will ever be profitable.We are committed to paying $945,000 of executive compensation for each of the next three years, thus reducing the amounts of money available for exploratory drilling.We have committed to the payment of $945,000 per year, for the three years beginning January 1, 2006, in cash compensation to five of our most senior executives. If we do not have a discovery of oil or gas, a sizable portion of the amounts raised in the future may be used for executive compensation, reducing the amounts available for exploratory drilling. .If we are unable to obtain additional financing, we may be unable to successfully execute our business plan.Our planned work program is expensive. If we are unable to raise at least $3,250,000 net proceeds during 2006 in a combination of a planned public offering (in a minimum amount of $2,450,000 and a maximum of $14,000,000), warrant exercises, loans and foreign placements of our securities or we are unable to attract additional participants in the Joseph Project, we may not be able to complete the steps of our minimum work program for completing our Ma'anit #1 well, the cost of which could be as much as $1,000,000. A new well could cost as much as $7.5 million for a dry hole and $9 million for a completed producer, assuming there are no drilling or completion problems. If we raise less than the maximum amount of the planned public offering, we may have to seek other forms of financing, including the sale (if possible) of a portion of our license rights and obligations to one or more other petroleum exploration companies in order to drill our planned appraisal well on the Ma'anit prospect. Moreover, even if the Ma'anit #1 and/or the appraisal well we plan to drill is completed as a commercial well, we may have to seek additional forms of financing, including the sale (if possible) of a portion of our license rights and obligations to drill additional wells to develop the Ma'anit prospect and additional wells planned to test additional prospects (including deep tests to the Permian) on our license. Any additional financing could cause your relative interest in our assets and potential to be significantly diluted. Even if we have exploration success, we may not be able to generate sufficient revenues to offset the cost of dry holes and general and administrative expenses.Oil and gas exploration is an inherently risky business.Exploratory drilling involves enormous risks, including the risk that no commercially productive natural gas or oil reservoirs will be discovered. Even when properly used and interpreted, seismic data analysis and other computer simulation techniques are only tools used to assist geoscientists in trying to identify subsurface structures and hydrocarbon indicators. They do not allow the interpreter to know conclusively if hydrocarbons are present or economically available. The risk analysis techniques we use in evaluating potential drilling sites rely on subjective judgments of our personnel and consultants. There is no assurance that other companies with superior financial resources, larger technical infrastructure and more experience will agree with our analysis and recommendations.Political risks inhibit our ability to raise capital.Our operations are concentrated in Israel and could be directly affected by political, economic and military conditions in Israel. Efforts to secure a lasting peace between Israel and its Arab neighbors and Palestinian residents have been underway since Israel became a country in 1948 and the future of these peace efforts is still uncertain.Kibbutz Ma'anit (where we have drilled our first well) is in an area adjacent to Israeli Arab villages where anti-Israeli rioting broke out in late 2000. Any future armed conflict (including the renewal of the recent conflict between Israel and the Hezbollah terrorist organization based in Lebanon and the expansion of that conflict into the areas in which Zion is operating or into central Israel), political instability or continued violence in the region could have a negative effect on our operations and business conditions in Israel, as well as our ability to raise additional capital necessary for completion of our exploration program.Economic risks inhibit our ability to raise additional capital.Economically, our operations in Israel may be subject to: exchange rate fluctuations;royalty and tax increases and other risks arising out of Israeli State sovereignty over the mineral rights in Israel and its taxing authority; and changes in Israel's economy that could cause the legislation of oil and gas price controls.Consequently, our operations may be substantially affected by local economic factors beyond our control, any of which could negatively affect our financial performance.Legal risks could negatively affect the value of Zion.Legally, our operations in Israel may be subject to: changes in the Petroleum Law resulting in modification of license and permit rights;changes in laws and policies affecting operations of foreign-based companies in Israel; andchanges in governmental energy and environmental policies or the personnel administering them;During the period 2002-2004, several proposals were submitted by Israeli government authorities to amend various provisions of the Petroleum Law and the related fiscal regime which, if they had been adopted and applied to outstanding petroleum rights, might have resulted in increasing our costs of exploration and production. Further, in the event of a legal dispute in Israel, we may be subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of Israeli courts or we may not be successful in subjecting persons who are not United States residents to the jurisdiction of courts in the United States, either of which could adversely affect the outcome of a dispute.Our license and permit could be canceled or terminated, and we would not be able to successfully execute our business plan.Our license and permit are granted for fixed periods and each requires compliance with a work program detailed in the license or permit respectively. If we do not fulfill the relevant work program, the Israeli government may terminate the license or permit before its scheduled expiration date. There are limitations on the transfer of interests in the license and permit, which could impair our ability to raise additional funds to execute our business plan.The Israeli government has the right to approve any transfer of rights and interests in our license and permit and any mortgage of the license or permit to borrow money. If we try to raise additional funds through borrowings or joint ventures with other companies and are unable to obtain some of these approvals from the government, the value of your investment could be significantly diluted or even lost.Our dependence on the limited contractors, equipment and professional services available in Israel will result in increased costs and possibly material delays in our work schedule.In Israel, as of the date of this annual report, there is only one drilling contractor, one provider of seismic services and one provider of logging services. The drilling contractor has only one drilling rig in Israel capable of drilling to our target depth. Consequently, due to the lack of competitive resources, costs for our operations may be more expensive than costs for similar operations in other parts of the world. We are also more likely to incur some delays in our drilling schedule and be subject to a greater risk of failure in meeting our required work schedule. Similarly, some of the oil field personnel we need to undertake our planned operations are not necessarily available in Israel or available on short notice for work in Israel, a situation that may result in increased costs and some delays in the work schedule.Our dependence on Israeli local licenses and permits may require more funds than we have budgeted and may cause delays in our work schedule.We are subject to a number of Israeli local licenses and permits. Some of these are issued by the Israeli security forces, the Civil Aviation Authority, the Israeli Water Commission, the Israel Lands Authority, the holders of the surface rights in the lands on which we intend to conduct drilling operations, including Kibbutz Ma'anit, and local and regional Planning Commissions. In order to obtain necessary licenses and permits, more money than the amounts budgeted for those purposes may be required, and we may have to delay the planned work schedule, which would increase the costs.Voting control is concentrated in management, which effectively limits your shareholder voting rights.The management of Zion, including five officers holding proxies from a total of 59 other shareholders, controls more than 50% of the voting shares of Zion and will continue to control more than 50% following the closing of the planned public offering. The ability of management to exercise significant control over us may discourage, delay or prevent a takeover attempt that a shareholder might consider in his or her best interest and that might result in a shareholder receiving a premium for his or her common stock. Also, management may have the ability to: control the vote of most matters submitted to our shareholders, including any merger, consolidation or sale of all or substantially all of our assets; elect all of the members of our board of directors;prevent or cause a change in control of our company; anddecide whether to issue additional common stock or other securities or declare dividends.Cash dividends may not be paid to shareholders.You may receive little or no cash or stock dividends on your shares of common stock. The board of directors has not directed the payment of any dividends, does not anticipate paying dividends on the shares for the foreseeable future and intends to retain any future earnings to the extent necessary to develop and expand our business. Payment of cash dividends, if any, will depend, among other factors, on our earnings, capital requirements, and the general operating and financial condition, and will be subject to legal limitations on the payment of dividends out of paid-in capital. There may be a limited market for natural gas, causing natural gas prices to decrease, which could negatively impact the results of our operations and financial condition.If, we should happen to find gas instead of oil and the Israeli market for gas does not develop and grow as projected by the Israeli government, there may be too much gas for the market to absorb in the short term, causing natural gas prices to decrease. This would negatively impact the results of our operations and our financial condition. At the present time there is no gas pipeline in our area and we do not know when or even if one will be available to transport large amounts of gas from our area of operation.If compliance with environmental regulations is more expensive than anticipated, it could adversely impact the profitability of our business.If we are successful in finding commercial quantities of oil and gas, our operations would be subject to laws and regulations relating to the generation, storage, handling, emission, transportation and discharge of materials into the environment, which can adversely affect the cost, manner or feasibility of our doing business. Many Israeli laws and regulations require permits for the operation of various facilities, and these permits are subject to revocation, modification and renewal. Governmental authorities have the power to enforce compliance with their regulations, and violations could subject us to fines, injunctions or both. Risks of substantial costs and liabilities related to environmental compliance issues are inherent in oil and gas operations. It is possible that other developments, such as stricter environmental laws and regulations, and claims for damages to property or persons resulting from oil and gas exploration and production, would result in substantial costs and liabilities. This could cause our insurance premiums to be significantly greater than anticipated.There is significant competition in the oil and gas industry, and most of our competitors have more capital than we do.The oil and gas exploration business is highly competitive and has few barriers to entry. We will be competing with other oil and gas companies and investment partnerships to develop oil and gas properties in Israel and to purchase equipment and obtain labor necessary to complete wells. Many of our competitors are larger than we are and have substantially greater access to capital and technical resources than we do and may therefore have a significant competitive advantage.Fluctuation in oil and gas prices could adversely affect our financial condition.If we are successful in finding commercial quantities of oil and gas, our revenues, operating results, financial condition and ability to borrow funds or obtain additional capital will depend substantially on prevailing prices for oil and natural gas. Declines in oil and gas prices may materially adversely affect our financial condition, liquidity, ability to obtain financing and operating results. Lower oil and gas prices also may reduce the amount of oil and gas that we could produce economically. Historically, oil and gas prices and markets have been volatile, with prices fluctuating widely, and they are likely to continue to be volatile, making it impossible to predict with any certainty the future prices of oil and gas.The loss of key personnel could adversely impact our business.We are highly dependent on the services of Eugene Soltero, Richard Rinberg, Glen Perry and other key personnel. The loss of certain of our key employees would likely have a material adverse impact on the development of our business. We currently do not maintain key employee insurance policies on these employees.Earnings will be diluted due to charitable contributions and key employee incentive plan.We are committed to donating 6% of our gross sales revenues, if any, (after payout of exploration costs through the first discovery well) to two charitable trusts. In addition, we will be allocating 1.5% (after payout of drilling costs on a well-by-well basis) to a key employee incentive plan designed as a bonus compensation over and above our required executive compensation payments. This means that the total royalty burden on our property (including the government royalty of 12.5%) will be 20%. As our expenses increase with respect to the amount of sales, these donations and allocation could significantly dilute future earnings and, thus, depress the price of the common stock.